A Healthy Community
The main public health problem in India is environmental hygiene. A recent survey conducted on environmental hygiene in India showed that, there is poor management of sanitations. This raised the importance of highlighting control approaches on environmental sanitation. The control of sanitation is a great challenge to the appropriate economical interventions, which associates with the environmental hygiene in India. This article discusses various approaches to the environmental hygiene in India. It also discusses on Healthy People 2020 that offers an outline for prevention for the country. The study Identifies specific threat in India. The paper also focuses on the specific health behaviours that are targeted to improve the sanitation in India.
A healthy community should consider hygiene and clean environment. Environmental sanitation promotes the health of the people by offering clean surroundings and eradicating diseases. There are various factors related to environmental hygiene. They involves, the available resources, the people’s hygiene, inventive and suitable technologies according to the condition of the people, the country’s socioeconomic growth, governmental commitment, traditional aspects associated with environmental hygiene, capability of constructing the troubled regions, communal factors involving behaviours of the people and measures approved by the government.
India lags behind many states in the sectors of environmental hygiene. The government of India need to emphasize and promote interventions on clean environment. The government needs to introduce new strategies and target procedures with a follow-up assessment in order to improve the hygiene. It needs to identify the operational system of ecological hygiene. It should have deference to the structure and highlight the control approaches that consider the people’s needs. The approaches are important because of the water limitations, industrialization, and rapid growth of the population, health issues, urbanization and unequal distribution of water facilities (Das, 2009).
A survey conducted states that, in 2006 there was inadequate sanitation that estimated almost $54 billion or 6.4% of the GDP in India. The economic impact of health issues was over 70% or $38.5 billion. An estimated 12% of the community had health-related diseases like diarrhoea and followed by severe lower lung infections. The factual estimations suggest that, all sanitation and water developments are costly in all developing sub regions. In India, the sectors that demand water are increasing rapidly. The sectors are mostly in the urban areas. It is expected that the country’s population will increase by more than 50% by 2025 (Das, 2009).
The estimation states that, most populated areas will be the urban centres. These developments may be enhanced by the population growth, industrial development and increasing incomes. The National Urban Sanitation Policy initiated in 2008. The organization promoted the hygiene in the towns and cities of the country. In November 2008, the department of Urban Development appointed the analysis as part of its National Urban Sanitation Policy. In rural regions, the institutions of local management in charge of managing and preserving the substructure became weak and had inadequate financial assets to perform their work. In India, there is no town with constant source of water. A survey conducted states that, 72% of Indians lack access to enhanced sanitation infrastructures (Das, 2009).
In 2000, Indian government had initiated a number of inventive approaches to develop the sanitation and water sources. These approaches include, total sanitation led by the citizens, public and private collaboration to develop the stability of urban water in Karnataka, and the utilization of microcredit to women in order to advance the facilities of water. Total sanitation approach offers tough policies on Information, Education and Communication (IEC). Total sanitation also offers education on hygiene and builds the capability of the people. Since 2010, the key objective of the Indian government is to eliminate the exercise of environmental pollution from industries (Das, 2009).
The government boosts the effort by launching the Nirmal Gram Puraskar. They identify the hard work in terms of money awards for entirely enclosed Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs). The government takes into account the organizations and individuals who contribute significantly. These institutions and individuals ensure full hygiene exposure in their place of work and their residents. Currently, the government has implemented a project in rural regions by considering constituencies as an entity of operation (Das, 2009).
The latest analysis suggested that, most of the developing countries require cost-effective interventions. This maintains better domestic water and quality organization to complement the on-going expansion of coverage and advancement of services. Most of the approaches have the greatest impact of hygiene and household treatment. They considerably decrease the levels of infection such as diarrhoea. These approaches include numerous interventions like clean water and clean sanitation. The interventions used to improve clean water at the domestic level are operational than the water from the source (Das, 2009).
In evolving countries, the community health issues are reported to public organizations, such as hospitals, ecological sanitation, and public services. The institutions hesitate to recognize the sanitation at home. The organization should have a setting that equalizes all the sanitation issues concerning the community. This is to ensure a reduced chain of disease programme in the community. Inspectors of home sanitation and community sanitation must act in order to improve the efforts that promote community health. An analysis conducted through detailed interviews, approximately 800 homes at Hyderabad town in India. The survey stated that, an extensive section of poor homes would spend more money on water and drain network, even if they are provided with market proportions of funding (Jain, Kumar, & Kar, 2011).
Healthy People 2020 is an organization that sets specific objectives that concerns the public health in the world. The role of Healthy People 2020 is to guide the community to avoid the chain of diseases by providing Quality Drinking Water. The organization emphasizes to the water companies to assess and manage quality water from source to customer. The institution insists on quality safety and avoidance of contamination. It advises the water production companies to participate, be active, and address the requirements of the people in evolving countries. The developing countries may have no access to clean water supplies. The strategies have a vital goal as it emphasizes on maintenance of bacterial quality that prevents waterborne disease. Moreover, the organization addresses the community to be safe from chemical that may be poisonous (Jain, Kumar, & Kar, 2011).
Water quality developments may have least impacts when the sanitation settings are poor, irrespective of quantity of contamination in water. Once the sufficient sanitation settings are introduced, they can eradicate the infectious diseases. The programme pathways are sufficient in maintaining diarrheal infection. Families that live under good hygiene conditions, get positive impacts. Quality water determines the health of people. Sanitation is important when measured at the public level, but not important when measured at family levels. Improved and quality drinking water have no impact in the regions with very deprived ecological sanitation. However, the regions with healthier public sanitation, reduces the accumulation of fecal coliforms. Through two guidelines of magnitude, fecal coliforms can lead to a 40% decrease in diarrhoea. The first guideline involves private excreta removal. Once the guideline provided, it is expected to decrease diarrhoea by 42%. When Excreta is eliminated around the house, can lead to a 30% decrease in diarrhoea (Jain, Kumar, & Kar, 2011).
The discoveries propose that developments in both hygiene and water supply are essential to infant wellbeing in evolving countries. The researchers also suggest that the hygiene is not epidemiologic, but institutional, behavioural, and economic aspects that should appropriately define the importance of interventions. The study emphasized that approaches of quality water and the use water treatment were observed to be actual than numerous interventions. These interventions involve the sanitation, combined water, and hygiene measures. Researchers show that washing of hand can reduce diarrhoea infections by about 30%. This major reduction is similar to the outcome of offering clean water in both urban and rural regions (Jain, Kumar, & Kar, 2011).
National water strategies are evolving to public-based board approach because local specialists are in regular interaction with consumers. Approximately 50% of women involve themselves in the public activities. Generally, national programme initiated the water sections, organized water agencies and started the capability of private or charitable agencies. These agencies permit for more effectual and operative responses to the developing countries. Local organizations and agencies should have better equipped resources to assist the local members in order to eliminate poor hygiene (Jain, Kumar, & Kar, 2011). Planning of Local water source is very essential in establishing the financial and individual dimensions as well as the poor people in undeveloped regions. The approaches have positive impacts on states such as Banaskantha, Sabarkantha and Mahesana, in Gujarat. The major problems in Gujarat were the water source developments as it was recognized as an increasing demand for community water facilities. They also had difficulties in insufficient provision of facilities due to remote regions and fiscal restrictions in sanitation agencies. Infrastructure was also a major problem in Gujarat (Jain, Kumar, & Kar, 2011).
Disease and death occurs due to waterborne infections. Both diseases and deaths have not decreased corresponding with rise in accessibility of clean water source. More significantly, infant and children endure a big risk of the disease. The diseases like diarrhoea results from the contaminated sanitation. An estimated number of 0.4 to 0.5 million children under the age of 5 years die in India due to diarrhoea. While the number of infant deaths has reduced over the years in the countries, the major problem that has resulted to these deaths is the failure to create important headway in educating individual and household hygiene. The hygiene should be more sensitive to the infants, young children, and the environments surrounding birth (Jain, Kumar, & Kar, 2011).
Some policies administer on unwanted solid in order to reduce environmental contamination. They include a wise plan in town settings, induction of public staff and enlightened generation, participation of public-based and nongovernmental groups, building up and process of manure plants through NGOs and the private region, improvement of the dimensions of some country structures. For instance, State Compost Development Corporations that stresses on the commercial operations and participation of private sections. Diverse resolutions for hygiene in dissimilar parts of the country or within the same region can be led by disparities in type of housing, design for settlement and density, state of poverty, and the availability of networked services (Jain, Kumar, & Kar, 2011).
The major areas to consider in eradicating sanitations issues include execution of cheaper sanitation structure with lesser subsidies. Better household hygiene improves the health of the community. Availability of technology varieties, choices for hygienic developments for women, local and urban drainage schemes are also the major issues that concerns environmental sanitation in India. The NGO should involve themselves in the interventions for reducing unhygienic environment. Appropriate procedures of private involvement and public corporations can evolve policies in India. The procedures should focus on sustainability with governmental obligation to develop the environmental hygiene.
Das, A., & Das, A. (2009). Farmersʼ suicide in India: implications for public mental health. The International journal of social psychiatry. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19822540
Jain, A., Kumar, Sg., & Kar, S. (2011). Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.