A & P 1
The urine follows a certain order before its excretion. After the secretion of urine by the kidneys, it is conveyed to the urinary bladder by the ureters. In the urinary bladder, the urine is retained for some time; the walls of the urinary bladder have the capacity to expand and contract in order to allow holding and releasing of urine (Hudson, 2006). When the time of releasing urine comes, the urine is discharged from the body through the urethra. The discharge of urine from the bladder is usually under voluntary nervous control.
The food pyramid is remarkably vital in keeping the body healthy and maintaining the body processes. The food pyramid comprises of grains, vegetables, fruits, fats and oils, milk and dairy products, meat, beans, fish and nuts. All these fall into six categories, where five groups represent food while the sixth group comprises of fats and oils. These food groups are usually broken down to provide energy for the body processes. The body cannot function well without the required energy; hence, without the breakdown of these food substances, the body functioning will be affected adversely (Watson, 2004). Besides, the breakdown of these food substances provide different nutrients required by the body in maintaining a good health; therefore, after the breakdown of the food substances, the body is nourished with the various nutrients. The fats and oils help in insulating the body and their breakdown provides the required energy by the body.
Kidney infection describes the inflation of the renal parenchyma, pelvis, and calyces; especially because of a local bacteria infection. The infection is usually caused by E. Coli bacteria. This bacteria spreads from the bladder or the urethra to one of the kidneys infecting it. In case the infection is not treated with prompt, there is a risk of developing serious complications, which may include blood poisoning also known as sepsis and kidney damage. Kidney stones comprise of a compound known as calcium oxalate, which is as a result of accumulating dissolved minerals on the inner lining of the kidneys (Watson, 2004). The deposits can grow up to the size of a golf ball as it maintains a sharp, crystalline formation. The stones may pass unnoticed from the urinary tract, but can cause extreme pain as they exit. The chief cause of kidney stones is a lack of water. Kidney stones usually affect individuals that drink less than the required eight to ten glasses of water per day. The moment there is not adequate water to dilute uric acid, which is a component of urine, the PH level in around the kidneys drops and develops to be more acidic. An extremely acidic environment in the kidneys creates a conducive environment for the formation of the kidney stones.
Caffeine is known to relieve headaches because of its capacity to increase alertness, improve muscle coordination and decreasing of fatigue. Through this relaxation of muscles individuals become relieved of headaches (Schrier, 2007). However, caffeine can cause kidney infection because it causes stimulation of the walls of the urinary bladder and the urinary tract, which may lead to irritation if one already has an infection. Dehydration is caused by the diuretic effect of caffeine. Dehydration decreases the frequency of urination, which may allow bacteria in the urinary tract to populate into an infection.
Hudson, D. M. (2006). Top shelf. Portland, Me: Walch Publishing.
Schrier, R. W. (2007). Diseases of the kidney & urinary tract. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Watson, S. (2004). The urinary system. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.