Criminology, Michael Robert Milken’s caseBy
Michael Robert Milken, a businessperson born in 1946, was charged with felony for violating US security laws in 1980’s. He was a well-known philanthropist for developing the high yielding market bonds. In 1989, however, Milken was charged with 98 counts of racketeering and security fraud after an investigation was conducted. During the charges, he pleaded guilty to six security violations, which saw him not convicted for racketeering charges pressed against him. He was then sentenced to ten years in prison (Stewart, 1992). The United States Securities Commission barred him from the security industry due to his breach of protocol. After less than two years, the presiding judge decided to reduce his sentence, leading to his release from prison. He had earned the nickname, ‘Junk Bond King’ in the 1980s after his involvement in the Wall Street. Milken was an exceptional key figure in the US economy, which had grown over the last twenty years. In 1980, he co-founded the Milken foundation, which was an institute for medical research such as cancer and other life threatening diseases. Milken was sent to the federal prison camp Pleasanton in California (McCollum, 1996). He served forty months at the federal prison.
Ivan Boesky served his sentence at Lompoc Federal Prison Camp, situated in California near the Vandenberg Air force base. The Lompoc Federal prison is part of a Federal Correctional complex. Born in Detroit, Michigan to a Jewish family, Boesky’s fortune was two hundred million US dollars in 1986. He became the Chairman of the Beverly Hills’ hotel corporation in the same year and was massively involved in betting of corporate takeovers. Following his involvement in insider trading, which was illegal in US laws, the US Securities and Exchange Commission conducted investigations on Boesky’s deals. Boesky had made investments based on tips received from corporate insiders, which were illegal. After the court confirmed the charges, it found him guilty and sentenced him to three and a half years in Lompoc Federal prison.
Manuel Noriega, born in 1934 was a Panamanian dictator between 1983 and 1989. The United States later captured him and found guilty of drug trafficking, money laundering and racketeering in 1992 (Stewart, 1992). His sentence ended in 2007 after both Panama and France requested for extradition for conviction of murder and money laundering. After arrival in France in 2010, a re-trial took place and he was found guilty for the charges pressed against him. He was sentenced to seven years in jail on July 2010. On September 2011, Noriega was granted a conditional release and was extradited on October 2011. He is to serve twenty years in Panama.
Terry Lynn Nichols born on April 1955 is a convicted bomber. After working in the US army from 1989, he met with Timothy McVeigh together with whom they prepared and planned the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. In 1997, a federal trial found Nicholas guilty of conspiracy of using weapons of mass destruction to bomb the Oklahoma City. He was later convicted for eight counts of manslaughter for killing federal law enforcement personnel. In 2004, he was convicted of 161 counts of first degree murder, arson, conspiracy and homicide (Stewart, 1992). He is currently serving a life sentence in the ADX Florence super maximum-security prison in Florence Colorado. The United States penitentiary administrative maximum facility (ADX) is a maximum facility center specifically designed for men (Rafter and Stanley, 1999). Its location is Colorado, in the United States. It operates under the federal bureau of prisons, which is under the department of justice in United States. It usually houses the most notorious criminals in the United States. The prison was constructed in 1983 because of two incidents where correction officers were murdered in Illinois. The director of the federal bureau of prisons was convinced that a high-level security prison was to be constructed, thus the construction of ADX supermax. Born on October 1940, John Joseph Gotti was an American mobster who led the Gambino crime family based in New York. Gotti became accustomed to a life of crime at an extremely tender age due to his upbringing in severe poverty (Stewart, 1992). The Gambino family was involved in selling narcotics, robbery with violence and even murder cases. In 1990 FBI detectives from New York arrested Gotti and the crime family where Gotti was charged with racketeering cases, murder charges, conspiracy, loan sharking, illegal gambling, tax evasion, bribery and obstruction of justice. Gotti got a trial in the United States District Court in New York, which was presided over by Judge Leo Glasser (Stewart, 1992). Judge Glasser found Gotti guilty of the indictment, and he was later sentenced to life imprisonment without parole. He was incarcerated at the United States penitentiary at Marion, Illinois where he spent the majority of his sentence in confinement. The United States penitentiary is a facility operated by the federal bureau of prisons. It is located in Williamson County, Illinois. It was opened in 1963, and in 1978, it became the highest security prison in the United States. Marion and ADX Florence are the two supermax prisons in the federal bureau of prisons in the United States. It has a capacity of over five hundred inmates (Clear, Cole and Reisig, 2010).
Martha Stewart was born in August 1941 in New Jersey, USA. She was an entrepreneur in the television and entertainment industry. In 1967, she explored her interests into stocks and became a stockbroker. Stewart and her husband Andrew bought a farmhouse on turkey hill road, which later became the studio of the Mathew Stewart living show. In 1976, she ventured into a catering business, which became successful. In 1990’s, she ventured into the publishing industry to develop her own magazine at the Time Publishing Company. Martha Stewart Living. Her interests in stock broking saw her convicted in a stock trading case. In 2001, Stewart sold her shares of her Imclone systems after Peter Bacanovic informed her. The value of the shares fell by 16 percent after selling them. The following year, Stewart resigned from the board of directors of New York Stock exchange. In 2003, the US Securities and Exchange Commission charged Stewart with nine counts. The charges included securities fraud and obstruction of justice. She went on trial on 2004 and was charged with corporate fraud. She was found guilty of conspiracy, making false statements to federal investigators and obstruction of an agency proceeding. In relation to this, she got a five months sentence in federal correctional facility and later a two-year period of supervised release Stewart (Clear, Cole and Reisig, 2010).
The federal prison camp, Alderson is a minimum-security prison for women in the US. The federal bureau of prisons also operates it. It is located in Alderson, West Virginia and chosen the first federal prison for women in 1928 (Rafter and Stanley, 1999). The prison, which is located in two West Virginia counties, has a capacity of over one thousand inmates. One part of the prison is located in Monroe while the other part of the prison is in Summers County. The staff members of the prison mainly concentrate on vocational training of the inmates. Majority of the inmates in this prison are convicts of white-collar crimes such as the case of Martha Stewart.
Majority of these individuals were federal crime convicts that they committed in the United States. Most of the crimes that they committed are similar in nature, for example, Manuel Noriega, Michael Milken Ivan Boesky and Terry Nichols were charged with racketeering, money laundering and security fraud. Others like John Gotti were involved in selling drugs and other narcotics, murder cases and running crime gangs. The federal bureau of prisons provides the facilities and operates the prisons that suspects who are charged with federal crimes are sentenced. There are two main supermax prisons according to the federal bureau of prisons in the United States. These are ADX Florence and Marion. Federal prison Camp, Alderson, which is located West Virginia is the only federal prison for women (McShane and Williams, 1996).
Clear R. T., Cole F. G., &Reisig D. M. (2010). American Corrections. Cengage Learning.
McCollum W. &McCollum B. (1996). Federal Prison Industries, Inc: hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, US House of Representatives. DIANE publishing.
McShane D. M. &Williams P. F. (1996). Encyclopedia of American Prisons. New York: Taylor and Francis publishing.
Rafter H. N., &Stanley D. (1999). Prisons in America: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO.
Stewart B. J. (1992). Den of thieves. New York: Simon and Schuster publishing.