Disaster Epidemiology Research Centre
This report is focused art analyzing the effects of disaster and how to reduce such disasters such as in the country like Haiti that has experienced almost 40 hydro meteorological events in the past 50 years. Haiti has been approximated to b e affected by over 38 hydrometeorological events such as floods and other related events, between 1974 and 2003 according to Disaster Epidemiology Research Centre in 2004. Such threats have in the past caused losses of approximately 7% of the GDP and over 3,000 deaths. In 2008, the threat occurred again involving two major hurricanes and two storms just within three weeks after the first threat. The threats and destructions left over 1,100 people dead and an approximated damage of US$900 Million, which translated to around d 15% of the GDP. The agriculture sector had about S$200 million, housing had approximately US$900 million while transportation sector had about US$130 million. This state of threat and disturbance in Haiti led its government to pass a law on “Natural Catastrophe Emergency Declaration Act”, after which the government declared the nation to b e in a state of emergency. This budget request is focused at looking at the threats faced by various countries and the possible solutions to such threats and destructions.
Before looking at the solutions to such problems, it is important to deeply and strategically look at the causes of such threats and destructions. Such countries exposure to landslides and floods is majorly attributed to two factors: their geography, given that over 80% of such countries are mountainous, with 54 main sub-basins and watersheds. The other factor is attributed to rural farming, given that over 60% of the population in such countries live in extreme poverty and have limited access to farming methods that are cost effective that would promote soil conservation and discourage deforestation. A study carried out by USAID in 2007, referred to as Environment vulnerability, found out that more than half of the nations’ watersheds are vulnerable to the effects of population increase, infrastructure, and erosion. Looking at such destructions and their impacts, it can be noted that climatic changes can lead to the impacts of hydrometeorological events in the nature of catastrophe. To correct such threats and dest7gr5uctions as witnessed in Haiti, it is important to design a disaster management and a national risk plan that involves decentralizing risk management capacity and strengthening emergency response capacity. There is the need to form national strategies aimed at reducing poverty and promoting economic growth in the countries affected by such threats and destructions. The government also needs to form plans or organizations aimed at coordinating national disaster preparedness an d emergency response services in order to avert any form of threat or destruction.