Evaluation of General Plan for Tempe City
The City of Tempe has developed its General Plan. The plan guides the city in developing efforts that enhance sustainable and livable urban environment that is sensitive to environmental problems affecting people living within the city, who learn, work and play within the city (General Plan 2030, the City of Tempe 2003) . The general plan focuses on maintenance and management of land use; therefore asserting the commitment of Tempe city to quality physical growth. This evaluation essay focuses on conservation as one of the sustainable approaches of maintaining and managing land use within the city of Tempe.
Environmental elements, land and water, are the major topics under conservation. Environmental factors consist of various regional concerns such as air quality, pollution, noise, ambient temperature as well as energy resources. This subtopic covers the field that was discussed during the course.
Tempe city is among the urban communities affected by environmental challenges. The pollution, congestions, and degradations have led to the implementation of programs and policies to improve the quality of life in the city. The Tempe is located at a non-attainment region with a particulate matter bigger than 10 microns (PM 10). The city is highly affected by air pollution including dust and pollen from the PM 10. These effects have resulted in the implementation of policies that help in promoting public health, the local economy as well as quality of life (General Plan 2030, the City of Tempe 2003) . The introduction of air quality standards by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have assisted in reducing air pollution in the city. The Federal Clean Air Act has provided the city with quality standards to eradicate the major air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide and particulate matter.
The implementation of such policies has helped the city to improve regional air quality. The achieved by regulatory compliance as well a local program and policies which reduce and mitigate the impacts of air pollution to people living within the city and the community at large. Besides, EPA has helped the city to promote the use of alternative fuels to prevent gas emissions from sources such as automobiles that leads to air pollution (General Plan 2030, the City of Tempe 2003). Transportation means are another interest of the city, and the Tempe residents addressed their top environmental concern for alternative modes of transportation such as the use of transit.
Like different urban settlements, Tempe city is increasingly affected by different sources of noise including trains, aircraft, automobiles and other activities that make cause nuisance to the community (General Plan 2030, the City of Tempe 2003). Increased demands for services and regional population and infrastructure increase the effects of noise within the city. This has led to the implementation of noise elements to reduce such impacts. The execution of noise elements is effective for Tempe city as they have assisted in promoting noise monitoring and mitigation; thereby protecting the quality of life among the residents. The city has achieved noise mitigation by tracking noise impacts to help in determining the problems and prioritizing any changes that can be made to reduce noise.
Temperature has resulted in affecting the lives of residents living within the Tempe city. This is because Tempe developed from the agricultural community to urban area enclosed by different communities (General Plan 2030, the City of Tempe 2003) . This advancement has contributed to the loss of irrigated open space, increased concrete and asphalt as well as building mass. Besides, ambient temperatures affect the application of open-air space and intensify energy consumption important in maintaining comfort. The introduction of ambient temperature element to Tempe city is beneficial since it assists in reducing the impacts of heat gain, thus maintaining a comfortable environment and minimizing consumption of energy. The execution of such elements also assists in promoting monitoring and mitigation of temperature regionally.
Land elements tackle three regional concerns including habitat management, solid waste management and Brownfield development. Habitat management is the major concern of Tempe City. The city has demonstrated its effort on how to control urban environment for public safety and health with respect to non-native and native animals living in the community (General Plan 2030, the City of Tempe 2003). Habitat management element has been implemented in the city; to present a safe and healthy environment for the coexistence of both wildlife and humans. The policy assists in determining the potential and existing conditions that may challenge the restoration of habitat. It also assists in developing different methods to mitigate safety, welfare and public health issues.
Furthermore, solid waste tackles how Tempe city maintain urban environment for public safety and health based on hazardous waste and solid waste management, and reduction of waste. The implementation of policies and programs on solid waste management assist the city to minimize the amount of waste drained to landfills, reduce hazardous wastes effects on water supplies and lessen municipal waste and solid waste (General Plan 2030, City of Tempe 2003). The implementation of such policies have assisted in educating the residents on the significance of recycling and proper disposal of solid and hazardous wastes such as pharmaceutical, chemical or biological products. It has also encourages business premises to recycle their products and reduce packaging thus reducing poor disposal of solid waste to the environment.
The introduction of water element assists in providing enough drinking water that meets the water quality standards (General Plan 2030, City of Tempe 2003). It also preserves safe yields on the use of ground water and exploits the recycling of non-potable and reclaimed water use. The general plan of the city of Temple has assisted in implementation of infrastructure and technologies that facilitate the use of effluent or reclaimed water where necessary.
Tempe provides its residents in the Tempe Water Service Area with water and wastewater services (General Plan 2030, City of Tempe 2003). The Tempe city depends on reclaimed (effluent) water, renewable surface water supplies and groundwater supplies. The Arizona Department has provided the Tempe city an assured water supply designation. This attests that the city has showed legal, physical and continuous availability of surface water, groundwater and effluent water in an aggregate amount to meet the demands of people for many years. The execution of such water element has provided the city with increased levels of water service and quality at a reduced cost for utility consumers.
For the conservation of its environment, Tempe city maintains the wastewater collection sewer system (General Plan 2030, City of Tempe 2003). The city introduces the treatment of wastewater within the wastewater treatments plants. Tempe city has and operates the Kyrene Reclamation Facility in southern part of the city. The execution of wastewater element in the city enhances safely treatment and collection of all wastewater from the businesses and residences within the Tempe city, and within the town of Guadalupe. This has been achieved by use of the cost-effective means and available technologies of treatment.
City of Tempe has also introduced Tempe Water Utilities Department which operates and preserves the storm water drainage and collection system (General Plan 2030, City of Tempe 2003). The implementation of National Pollutant Discharge System has enabled the city to implement programs to conserve pollutants within storm waters that drain into rivers and lakes from communities within the city. More so, The implementation of storm water elements have resulted in minimizing total volume or load of pollutants which are drained to receiving water bodies including Tempe Town Lake, Salt River or any other municipal lake; therefore, protecting water bodies for designated use by the residents.
Conservation of Tempe City as provided in the general plan of the city covers the important topic learned during the course. The general plan provides enough information on conservation and how the city manages its environment for public health and safety. The conservation element of the city of Tempe is appropriate to the city since it enables the city to monitor and mitigate environmental issues affecting the lives of residents and the entire public. Conservation elements include environmental, land and water elements and all these elements have resulted in improved safety and health within the city. It is, therefore, important for other urban communities to come up with general plan since this will the quality if lives and safety among individual.
General Plan 2030, City of Tempe. Tempe, AZ: Development Services Dept, 2003. Print.