Literature Review On The Effects Of Music While Studying
For a long time, there has been a connection between society and music. There is no culture on earth, which does not know anything, that concerns music. Furthermore, human beings sometimes base their actions according to music. It is a known fact that music helps improve one’s brain, when it comes to matters that concern learning and studying. Einstein Albert is an exceptional man, who became renowned in academic matters, due to the music he listening to. When Einstein was young, people thought he was stupid, and after learning to play the violin, he improved. He often listened and played music by Bach and Mozart, and in turn, became extremely smart. Currently, the iPod is popular among many students, and they use it without thinking of the consequences it may have in the long run.
Research has been conducted, and it has been found out that studying improves as a result of listening to music. Also, it should be known that extreme users of IPods are at risk of suffering from hearing health problems. Even more, they might lose their hearing, while they are still young, and this will affect their life’s quality in the future. Researchers have identified healthy options, which students can keep in mind, when studying and listening to music.
This paper seeks to provide a literature review concerning research done on matters concerning studying and music.
An article by Jones Dianne, Bacon Marlene and William –Schultz Lashwan (2010) provides information concerning ‘Music as Pedagogy’. According to the authors, there are various learning environments, which students are often subjected to. The focus of this research is on nursing students whereby, the environment is highly technological. The IPod is a popular gadget among nurses, and they constantly plug it into their ears. The author’s believe that only limited research has been done concerning music, as well as its pedagogy. The authors have used a sample population of nursing students in their first year of associate degree programs. Permission was obtained from the Institutional Review Board before conducting the study. The article sort to find out the perceptions and attitudes, which student nurses have, concerning studying and listening to music, at the same time. It also provided evidence regarding the impact of studying while listening to music. The authors wanted to found out if learning is enhanced by music, as well as to find out the nurses music attitudes and habits. There are various research questions in the article and an example is “What is the benefit to recall when the content to be learned is delivered through music” (Jones, & Bacon & Williams-Schltz, 2010). Quantitative and Qualitative methods were used by the researchers. In the article, it has been mentioned that emotional and cognitive factors affect the perception, which people have, concerning music they listen to. Nursing students study well when they are listening to music, as it helps them to reduce levels of stress. Lastly, they researchers found out that perception influences if the student will learn better when there is music, which they are listening to.
The article by Danhauer Jeffrey et al (2009) concerns matters on hearing health and iPod use. The article focuses on research carried out on college students as the sample population. The article acknowledges that IPods use has increased, and the latter are known as personal listening devices. There is a risk that the users of the PLD’s may end up becoming deaf in the long run. The authors believe that there is not enough research done on college students, as they are the ones who own most PLD’s. The researchers wanted to find out what preferences, practices, attitudes and experiences exist, concerning iPod use and hearing health. Furthermore, the article has given recommendations concerning ways college students can use IPods safely. The researched methodology used is a questionnaire, which had 83 items. The questionnaire addressed issues such as ‘Attitudes toward iPod use’ and ‘IPod user’s practices and preferences’. The authors found out that college students need to have more information regarding hearing health. Also, the students listened to moderate volumes on their iPod, thus reduced risks of hearing loss. Furthermore, the method people choose to listen to an iPod and the type of iPods affects the users differently. This means that the more features that exist in an iPod, the more they students will listen to it. The article concludes that students should not listen to high volumes on their IPods. Moreover, some of the iPod users may not know that they have hearing loss (Danhauer et al, 2009).
The authors Hallam Susan and Kotsopoulou Anastatia (2010) have come up with an article that focuses on studying while listening to music. They conducted research in order to find out if differences in culture and age have an impact on studying while listening to music. They used questionnaires, which are based on a rating scale, and used a sample size of 600 students. The age groups of the students were 20-21, 15-16 and 12-13, and they were from America, Greece and the United Kingdom. They wanted to find out various factors, which are associated with music, and how they affect the sample population. Some of the factors include; perceived effects and music listened to when studying, as well as tasks one can perform when listening to music. The researchers found out that culture and age are variables, which are related, and they have an impact on studying while listening to music. Also, there are certain tasks, which need to be accompanied by music more frequently than others. In some cultures, children are provided with an atmosphere that has music, as it is believed that it enhances learning. Contrary, in other cultures, this might not be allowed, as it is viewed in a negative manner. Furthermore, the researchers found out that classical music is least listened to and pop music is most listened. They conclude that educators should control the noise, which students are subjected to, especially the younger students. Lastly, there is information regarding educational implications of the findings of the research (Kotsopoulou & Hallam, 2010).
North Adrian and Lonsdale Adam (2011) came up with an article that discusses an analysis on gratification and uses analysis. They wanted to find out the reason that makes people listen to music. They investigated the reasons, which make people feel the urge to listen to music. Furthermore, they wanted to find out, which leisure activities, are related with listening to music. The research design they chose was qualitative, and it focused on questions, which are open ended. Moreover, a design, which is cross sectional, was used to investigate the different reasons why people listen to music while focusing on their ages. The researchers found out that most times people listen to music in order to regulate and manage their moods. Also, after a comparison with other leisure activities, they found out that people prefer listening to music. The latter was based on the needs of the different individuals. According to the article, people place a lot of importance on music. Several reasons have been provided by the authors as to why they people like listening to various categories of music. The article concludes by claiming that when people grow older, they have varying opinions concerning why they opt to listen to music. In this article versatility is the reason for choosing to listen to music (Lonsdale, & North, 2011).
In conclusion, the various researchers have provided qualitative and quantitative research based on studying, while listening to music. Students should be informed of the dangers that exist when they are constantly using their iPods. They are likely to have problems, which concerns hearing. On the other hand, there are those who believe that by listening to music while studying, they are likely to comprehend a lot. The latter depends on the individual as the literature review seems to conclude. Another aspect, which the researchers seem to concur with, is that music plays a vital role when one is studying. Indeed, the articles have provided vital information regarding impacts of studying while listening to music.
Danhauer, Jeffrey. Et al. (2009). Survey of College Students on IPod use and Hearing Health. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. 20, 1, 5-27.
Jones, Dianne. & Bacon, Marlene, & Williams-Schltz, LaShawn. (2010). Music as Pedagogy. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. 5, 2, 1833-1882.
Kotsopoulou, Anastasia. & Hallam, Susan. (2010). The perceived impact of playing music while studying : age and cultural differences. Educational Studies. 36, 4, 431-440.
Lonsdale, Adam. & North, Adrian. (2011). Why do we listen to music? A uses and gratification analysis. British Journal of Psychology. 102, 108-134.