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The impact of asteroids on earth

The impact of asteroids on earth

Abstract

According to previous research by NASA scientists, there were estimates in 1950 DA, of about 0.3% for a collision between an asteroid with a diameter of about 1.1km and the earth. The description of the dynamics of a tsunami resulting from the impact and the asteroid was possibly achievable through the utilization of a quasi-analytic model that is used for wave propagation. This article presents an examination of a scenario involving an asteroid collision with the sea in the United States, 600km east of the country. It would be possible for the asteroid, travelling at a speed of 17.8 km per second, to develop a cavity that measures 19km wide, with a depth of about 5km at the site of the impact. Because of the collapse of the transient impact, there would be a development of tsunami waves, measuring hundreds of meters in height. Consequently, the velocity of the water that is running deep into the ocean floor would be so strong, thereby denting the sedimentary record.

Introduction

There have been contemplations of the ramifications from the impact of asteroids by scientists in the past two decades. Through the contemplations, it would be possible to accept calamities that might emanate from an impact with a rock from space. In the current world, humans live with a calculus of a devastation that might be infinite by infinitesimal probability times. In finding ways of addressing the consequences, NASA was given the opportunity by congress to look for and track all near earth asteroids. Various groups, such as NEAT, LINEAR as well as Spacewatch have made it known that there are about 600 objects of that nature in space. However, there is a possibility that the search might not have been complete to this point.

Comets, as well as asteroids are a danger to the lives of all the creatures on earth, and the particular danger emanates from the objects identified as Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Included in the NEOs identified, there are those whose diameter measures about 5km, with identifications that there are numerous others larger than 100m. About half of the NEOS identified cross the earth, meaning that they might intersect the planet’s orbit, possibly colliding with the earth in future. The main source of the earth-crossing NEOs originate from the asteroid belt as well as the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB), while other outer space bodies are comets that come from the Oort cloud. There is also a possibility that icy bodies could migrate in the Solar system from the regions between the Oort cloud and the EKB (Jewitt, 2000).

There is a possibility of determining that almost all that is known on the potential catastrophic societal and environmental consequences of an impact from an asteroid is a result off numerical simulations (LeVeque, 2002). Other estimates, possibly those with a less serious impact, are a derivative of extrapolations of testing nuclear weapons (Glasstone and Dolan, 1977). Larger impact estimates are a result of inferences originating from geological records for Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) impact that go back millions of years. It is possible to categorize the consequences that would result from the asteroid impacts into three size ranges.

Regional disasters coming from the impacts of objects measuring several hundreds of meters

Impacts that would likely end civilization by objects that measure several kilometers in diameter

Cataclysms that might lead to mass extinctions

With all these considerations, it is possible to insinuate that an uncertainty exists about some of the possible consequences that might result from larger impacts in the first and second category. On the other hand, several expectations indicate that the impacts are likely to lead to catastrophic and diverse chemical, biological and physical consequences, which would likely dominate the ecosphere of the earth in unimaginable ways. Some of the effects that emanate from climate and global circulation study models indicate atmospheric perturbations from the aerosols and dust lofted by the impact, consequently bringing about an ‘asteroidal winter’, which is a derivation of dust injected into the atmosphere. This means that temperatures would likely drop, herbivores will die, followed by carnivores since there will be sunlight blockage, leading to the death of photosynthesizing organisms and plants. From this effect, the entire food chain will be wiped out, leading to severe effects to the human beings.

For the evaluation of the asteroid impact in a particular zone, a simple method would involve multiplying impact frequency estimations, which are a function of the impact size, by a ratio between the earth and the equivalent surface area (LeVeque, 2002). However, it would be vital to group the possible impact-causing bodies to families, depending on their origin. There is a possibility f speculating a rather similar trajectory and dynamical properties for objects that are from the same family, which is likely to reduce the degree of the randomness of the spatial distribution impact. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be cautious with this interpretation since a majority of the terrestrial impact craters have been wiped out by some of the existing geological processes (Grieve, 1990).

Asteroid impact effects on an oceanic surface

In order to assess the impact that an asteroid might have on an oceanic surface, it would be necessary to develop a scenario where an asteroid measuring several multihundred meters strikes the Atlantic Ocean, which is close to the North American coast. From the impact, it would be possible to assess the generation of a tsunami, as well as the propagation of the tsunami, making it possible to predict the effects of the waves on the shore. The results that will be presented in this paper would be a representation of an asteroid that affects open seas and oceans only. There is a presentation of different results depending on whether the object strikes smaller water bodies such as those existing in confined seas. With accurate numerical simulations, the provision of valuable information is possible, which is a presentation of an interaction between the atmosphere and a large asteroid, using an underwater or seawater medium (Gisler et al, 2003). The brief simulation of such likelihood is presented below.

During the passage of the object in the atmosphere, it usually dissipates a kinetic energy that is less that 0.01. The remnants of the kinetic energy are usually absorbed by the sea or ocean floor in less than one second. This creates the vaporization of the water that surrounds the object, and it causes the excavation of a cavity in water, which originates from the rapid vapor excavation. The cavity would be asymmetric if the in case the object might be having oblique angles, which means that the crown, or splash, would be higher on the opposite side of the trajectory being exposed to the ocean or sea surface. When the crown collapses, it creates a precursor tsunami that would be propagated outwardly. As the crown collapses, the higher parts break down into some small droplets that fall back into the water body. Consequently, the hot vapor will be able to form a cavity that would expand into the earth’s atmosphere. Upon the reduction of the vapor pressure, the water will symmetrically fill the cavity created, beginning from the bottom to converge at the center, which generates a vertical rise of the water into the atmosphere, the height of the rise being comparable to the diameter of the initial cavity. Therefore, the principal tsunami would be a result of the collapse of the vertical water rise.

It would be a daunting task to model the preliminary water displacement by the impact of the asteroid in the water body. For this reason, it would be necessary to borrow from computations of scenarios set up by Gisler et al (2003), Malder and Gittings (20003), Crawford and Malder (1998), among other people. All of these authors give a prediction of the water disturbance, whose length attribution scale is comparable to the depth of the water at the initial point of impact. Because of the complex movement of the water from the point of impact, a preliminary approach would be to create an equivalent of the water cavity that would reveal a model of the waves emanating from the explosions under the water. Suggestions from Ward and Aspaugh (2002) indicate an existing relation between the depth Dc and radius Rc of the cavity of the form:

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://JournalofCosmology.com/images/Bad1.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

Where α and q represent the parameters that are subject to the properties of the asteroid. The main assumption in this case is that just a fraction ε of the kinetic energy from the asteroid is consumed during the formation of the cavity. For this reason, it would be possible to obtain the depth of the cavity by

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://JournalofCosmology.com/images/Bad2.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

With the density represented by ρi, the velocity by Vi , and the radius of the object represented by Ri. On the other hand, it is necessary to indicate that the representation of the seawater density in this equation is ρw, with h and g representing the water depth and gravitational acceleration respectively. From the first and the second equations, it would be possible to obtain the diameter dc of the cavity:

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://JournalofCosmology.com/images/Bad3.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

In this case δ=0.5/(1+α). It is possible to determine that laboratory investigations indicate that α=1.27.

When we assume that the central symmetry for the equivalent of the water cavity at the point of impact would initially be represented by t=0, then the water displacement that results from the impact is given by

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://JournalofCosmology.com/images/Bad4.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

Kharif and Pelinovsky (2005), formulated the equation, with RD = √2Rc, and η being the water displacement that is relative to the sea level in its normal status. The results from the equation indicate that all the water from the impact will deposit in the borders of the cavity.

A numerical approach of the tsunami dynamics

It is possible to use the TsunamiClaw code, which is an embodiment of a number of features useful for solving the equations. This code allows for the modeling of tsunamis as well as the inundation of the Cartesian grid with a diverse range of spatial and temporal scales (Clawpack, 2009). It is possible to accomplish this by using a two course level grid in the whole domain, consequently coming up with evolving Cartesian grids that are rectangular in nature. The grids are an exhibition of a high refinement level used to track some of the moving waves as well as the floods that appear around the shoreline from the impact (Berger and LeVeque, 1998). It is possible for the user to provide specifications of the refinement ratios, beginning with a coarse 102 km grid cell. This will enable the individual to track the long wavelength of the tsunami in deep waters, thereby enabling the individual to resolve the inundation and shoreline potential with the refinement level of up to 102 m or lower. Imposition in shallow waters possibly indicates the areas for refinement close to the coastlines. Another important aspect for consideration is the friction that presents a realistic typical value and run-up heights for operating, which is n=0.025. The development of the original code was for the determination of tectonically generated tsunamis, with the generation of the perturbation of the initial water level possible to achieve through the vertical seafloor displacement.

Results

From the studies attempting to assess the probability of an asteroid impact, it is possible to indicate that the 1950 DA stands out. The assessment indicates that there is a possible collision between the asteroid ant the earth in the year 2880, whose attribution stands at 0.3. The expectation is that the impact is likely to occur in the Atlantic Ocean, about 600 km from the United States east coast. Upon the consideration of the expected societal consequences, one might argue that this study is interesting. The first people to attempt this study were Ward and Aspaugh (2003), who incorporated an analytical approach in their assessment. With assumptions of an asteroid of diameter D = 1100 m, an impact velocity V = 17800 m/s and a density p = 2200 kg/m3, the authors gave an estimation of the initial impact cavity indicating a depth D = 6.5 km and a radius R = 9.5 km.

The first consideration would be to use numerical techniques in the description of the tsunami propagation and its interaction with the seashore. Secondly, it would be necessary to use an accurate combination of a topography and bathymetry files, using a standard GIS format. Using the model formulas previously presented, there is a possibility of evaluating the geometry of the cavity, a creation of the 1950 DA. With the consideration of the depth of the ocean measuring 4998 m, which corresponds to the point of impact whose location is at latitude 35.000 N and longitude 70.000 W, the depth of the cavity, from the second equation is D = 4.998 km. Consequently, the shape of the cavity upon the initial impact is achievable by utilizing the fourth equation. By using the first to the third equation, it would be possible to obtain values that are not similar to those used by Ward and Aspaugh (2003). For instance, equation 3 predicts the cavity radius to be R = 5.577 km, significantly smaller than the estimation of the authors, whose prediction stands at R = 9.5 km. However, in the mathematical simulations, it is vital to consider using the impact cavity features that the authors present. For instance, the features that they present include Dc = 4.998 km and Rc = 9.5 km, which will be beneficial for an individual since it allows a proper comparison between the individual’s results to those reported by Ward and Aspaugh.

Conclusion

This paper gives a presentation of some of the asteroid impact consequences, more specifically looking into the asteroid 1950 DA, with a diameter measuring 1.1 km. Therefore, the paper gives a presentation of 1950 DA asteroid impact in the Atlantic Ocean. The impact position, as stated in the paper is about 600 km of the Atlantic Ocean in the east of the United States coast. From the paper, it is possible to determine that the calculations are likely to lead to the achievement of lower values in comparison to some of the estimates from Ward and Aspaugh. However, there is a possibility of predicting a maximum run-up in some of the places that would be affected by the impact. The impact is indicative of a random process in time as well as in the geographical space. However, the estimates of such an impact are uncertain, considering that the impact rates are based on dynamical considerations. For this reason, it would be possible to determine the impact from history. From the empirical formulas indicated, there is a possibility of evaluating the frequency of the impact, taking into account the fact that the existing data that would provide contradictory results are likely to yield contradictory results. On the other hand, some of the environmental consequences are likely to be uncertain.

References

Berger, M.J., LeVeque R.J. (1998). Adaptive Mesh Refinement Using Wave- Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems. SIAM J Numerical Anal 35, 2298-2316.

Clawpack, (2009). Clawpack (Conservation Laws Package). Retrieved from: <http://www.amath.washington.edu/~claw/clawpack.org>

Crawford, D.A., Malder C.L. (1998). Modeling asteriod impact and tsunami. Sci. Tsunami Hazards 16, 21-30.

Gisler, G., Weaver R., Mader C., Gittings M.L. (2003). Two- and three-dimensional simulations of asteroid ocean impacts. Sci Tsunami Hazards 21, 119-134.

Glasstone, S., Dolan P.J. (1977). The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, 3rd ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, US

Grieve, R.A.F. (1990). Impact cratering on the Earth. Scientific American 262, 66-73.

Jewitt, D. (2000). Eyes wide shut. Nature 403, 145–146.

Kharif C., Pelinovsky E. (2005). Asteroid impact tsunamis. C.R. Physique 6, 361-366.

LeVeque, R.J. (2002). Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems, University Press Cambridge.

Malder, C.L., Gittings M. (2003). Dynamics of water cavity generation, Sci. Tsunami Hazards 21, 91-102.

Ward, S. N., Asphaug E. (2003). Asteroid impact tsunami of 2880 March 16. Geophys. J. Int. 153, F6–F10.

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The impact of asteroids on earth

Abstract

According to previous research by NASA scientists, there were estimates in 1950 DA, of about 0.3% for a collision between an asteroid with a diameter of about 1.1km and the earth. The description of the dynamics of a tsunami resulting from the impact and the asteroid was possibly achievable through the utilization of a quasi-analytic model that is used for wave propagation. This article presents an examination of a scenario involving an asteroid collision with the sea in the United States, 600km east of the country. It would be possible for the asteroid, travelling at a speed of 17.8 km per second, to develop a cavity that measures 19km wide, with a depth of about 5km at the site of the impact. Because of the collapse of the transient impact, there would be a development of tsunami waves, measuring hundreds of meters in height. Consequently, the velocity of the water that is running deep into the ocean floor would be so strong, thereby denting the sedimentary record.

Introduction

There have been contemplations of the ramifications from the impact of asteroids by scientists in the past two decades. Through the contemplations, it would be possible to accept calamities that might emanate from an impact with a rock from space. In the current world, humans live with a calculus of a devastation that might be infinite by infinitesimal probability times. In finding ways of addressing the consequences, NASA was given the opportunity by congress to look for and track all near earth asteroids. Various groups, such as NEAT, LINEAR as well as Spacewatch have made it known that there are about 600 objects of that nature in space. However, there is a possibility that the search might not have been complete to this point.

Comets, as well as asteroids are a danger to the lives of all the creatures on earth, and the particular danger emanates from the objects identified as Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Included in the NEOs identified, there are those whose diameter measures about 5km, with identifications that there are numerous others larger than 100m. About half of the NEOS identified cross the earth, meaning that they might intersect the planet’s orbit, possibly colliding with the earth in future. The main source of the earth-crossing NEOs originate from the asteroid belt as well as the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB), while other outer space bodies are comets that come from the Oort cloud. There is also a possibility that icy bodies could migrate in the Solar system from the regions between the Oort cloud and the EKB (Jewitt, 2000).

There is a possibility of determining that almost all that is known on the potential catastrophic societal and environmental consequences of an impact from an asteroid is a result off numerical simulations (LeVeque, 2002). Other estimates, possibly those with a less serious impact, are a derivative of extrapolations of testing nuclear weapons (Glasstone and Dolan, 1977). Larger impact estimates are a result of inferences originating from geological records for Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) impact that go back millions of years. It is possible to categorize the consequences that would result from the asteroid impacts into three size ranges.

Regional disasters coming from the impacts of objects measuring several hundreds of meters

Impacts that would likely end civilization by objects that measure several kilometers in diameter

Cataclysms that might lead to mass extinctions

With all these considerations, it is possible to insinuate that an uncertainty exists about some of the possible consequences that might result from larger impacts in the first and second category. On the other hand, several expectations indicate that the impacts are likely to lead to catastrophic and diverse chemical, biological and physical consequences, which would likely dominate the ecosphere of the earth in unimaginable ways. Some of the effects that emanate from climate and global circulation study models indicate atmospheric perturbations from the aerosols and dust lofted by the impact, consequently bringing about an ‘asteroidal winter’, which is a derivation of dust injected into the atmosphere. This means that temperatures would likely drop, herbivores will die, followed by carnivores since there will be sunlight blockage, leading to the death of photosynthesizing organisms and plants. From this effect, the entire food chain will be wiped out, leading to severe effects to the human beings.

For the evaluation of the asteroid impact in a particular zone, a simple method would involve multiplying impact frequency estimations, which are a function of the impact size, by a ratio between the earth and the equivalent surface area (LeVeque, 2002). However, it would be vital to group the possible impact-causing bodies to families, depending on their origin. There is a possibility f speculating a rather similar trajectory and dynamical properties for objects that are from the same family, which is likely to reduce the degree of the randomness of the spatial distribution impact. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be cautious with this interpretation since a majority of the terrestrial impact craters have been wiped out by some of the existing geological processes (Grieve, 1990).

Asteroid impact effects on an oceanic surface

In order to assess the impact that an asteroid might have on an oceanic surface, it would be necessary to develop a scenario where an asteroid measuring several multihundred meters strikes the Atlantic Ocean, which is close to the North American coast. From the impact, it would be possible to assess the generation of a tsunami, as well as the propagation of the tsunami, making it possible to predict the effects of the waves on the shore. The results that will be presented in this paper would be a representation of an asteroid that affects open seas and oceans only. There is a presentation of different results depending on whether the object strikes smaller water bodies such as those existing in confined seas. With accurate numerical simulations, the provision of valuable information is possible, which is a presentation of an interaction between the atmosphere and a large asteroid, using an underwater or seawater medium (Gisler et al, 2003). The brief simulation of such likelihood is presented below.

During the passage of the object in the atmosphere, it usually dissipates a kinetic energy that is less that 0.01. The remnants of the kinetic energy are usually absorbed by the sea or ocean floor in less than one second. This creates the vaporization of the water that surrounds the object, and it causes the excavation of a cavity in water, which originates from the rapid vapor excavation. The cavity would be asymmetric if the in case the object might be having oblique angles, which means that the crown, or splash, would be higher on the opposite side of the trajectory being exposed to the ocean or sea surface. When the crown collapses, it creates a precursor tsunami that would be propagated outwardly. As the crown collapses, the higher parts break down into some small droplets that fall back into the water body. Consequently, the hot vapor will be able to form a cavity that would expand into the earth’s atmosphere. Upon the reduction of the vapor pressure, the water will symmetrically fill the cavity created, beginning from the bottom to converge at the center, which generates a vertical rise of the water into the atmosphere, the height of the rise being comparable to the diameter of the initial cavity. Therefore, the principal tsunami would be a result of the collapse of the vertical water rise.

It would be a daunting task to model the preliminary water displacement by the impact of the asteroid in the water body. For this reason, it would be necessary to borrow from computations of scenarios set up by Gisler et al (2003), Malder and Gittings (20003), Crawford and Malder (1998), among other people. All of these authors give a prediction of the water disturbance, whose length attribution scale is comparable to the depth of the water at the initial point of impact. Because of the complex movement of the water from the point of impact, a preliminary approach would be to create an equivalent of the water cavity that would reveal a model of the waves emanating from the explosions under the water. Suggestions from Ward and Aspaugh (2002) indicate an existing relation between the depth Dc and radius Rc of the cavity of the form:

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://JournalofCosmology.com/images/Bad1.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

Where α and q represent the parameters that are subject to the properties of the asteroid. The main assumption in this case is that just a fraction ε of the kinetic energy from the asteroid is consumed during the formation of the cavity. For this reason, it would be possible to obtain the depth of the cavity by

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://JournalofCosmology.com/images/Bad2.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

With the density represented by ρi, the velocity by Vi , and the radius of the object represented by Ri. On the other hand, it is necessary to indicate that the representation of the seawater density in this equation is ρw, with h and g representing the water depth and gravitational acceleration respectively. From the first and the second equations, it would be possible to obtain the diameter dc of the cavity:

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://JournalofCosmology.com/images/Bad3.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

In this case δ=0.5/(1+α). It is possible to determine that laboratory investigations indicate that α=1.27.

When we assume that the central symmetry for the equivalent of the water cavity at the point of impact would initially be represented by t=0, then the water displacement that results from the impact is given by

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://JournalofCosmology.com/images/Bad4.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

Kharif and Pelinovsky (2005), formulated the equation, with RD = √2Rc, and η being the water displacement that is relative to the sea level in its normal status. The results from the equation indicate that all the water from the impact will deposit in the borders of the cavity.

A numerical approach of the tsunami dynamics

It is possible to use the TsunamiClaw code, which is an embodiment of a number of features useful for solving the equations. This code allows for the modeling of tsunamis as well as the inundation of the Cartesian grid with a diverse range of spatial and temporal scales (Clawpack, 2009). It is possible to accomplish this by using a two course level grid in the whole domain, consequently coming up with evolving Cartesian grids that are rectangular in nature. The grids are an exhibition of a high refinement level used to track some of the moving waves as well as the floods that appear around the shoreline from the impact (Berger and LeVeque, 1998). It is possible for the user to provide specifications of the refinement ratios, beginning with a coarse 102 km grid cell. This will enable the individual to track the long wavelength of the tsunami in deep waters, thereby enabling the individual to resolve the inundation and shoreline potential with the refinement level of up to 102 m or lower. Imposition in shallow waters possibly indicates the areas for refinement close to the coastlines. Another important aspect for consideration is the friction that presents a realistic typical value and run-up heights for operating, which is n=0.025. The development of the original code was for the determination of tectonically generated tsunamis, with the generation of the perturbation of the initial water level possible to achieve through the vertical seafloor displacement.

Results

From the studies attempting to assess the probability of an asteroid impact, it is possible to indicate that the 1950 DA stands out. The assessment indicates that there is a possible collision between the asteroid ant the earth in the year 2880, whose attribution stands at 0.3. The expectation is that the impact is likely to occur in the Atlantic Ocean, about 600 km from the United States east coast. Upon the consideration of the expected societal consequences, one might argue that this study is interesting. The first people to attempt this study were Ward and Aspaugh (2003), who incorporated an analytical approach in their assessment. With assumptions of an asteroid of diameter D = 1100 m, an impact velocity V = 17800 m/s and a density p = 2200 kg/m3, the authors gave an estimation of the initial impact cavity indicating a depth D = 6.5 km and a radius R = 9.5 km.

The first consideration would be to use numerical techniques in the description of the tsunami propagation and its interaction with the seashore. Secondly, it would be necessary to use an accurate combination of a topography and bathymetry files, using a standard GIS format. Using the model formulas previously presented, there is a possibility of evaluating the geometry of the cavity, a creation of the 1950 DA. With the consideration of the depth of the ocean measuring 4998 m, which corresponds to the point of impact whose location is at latitude 35.000 N and longitude 70.000 W, the depth of the cavity, from the second equation is D = 4.998 km. Consequently, the shape of the cavity upon the initial impact is achievable by utilizing the fourth equation. By using the first to the third equation, it would be possible to obtain values that are not similar to those used by Ward and Aspaugh (2003). For instance, equation 3 predicts the cavity radius to be R = 5.577 km, significantly smaller than the estimation of the authors, whose prediction stands at R = 9.5 km. However, in the mathematical simulations, it is vital to consider using the impact cavity features that the authors present. For instance, the features that they present include Dc = 4.998 km and Rc = 9.5 km, which will be beneficial for an individual since it allows a proper comparison between the individual’s results to those reported by Ward and Aspaugh.

Conclusion

This paper gives a presentation of some of the asteroid impact consequences, more specifically looking into the asteroid 1950 DA, with a diameter measuring 1.1 km. Therefore, the paper gives a presentation of 1950 DA asteroid impact in the Atlantic Ocean. The impact position, as stated in the paper is about 600 km of the Atlantic Ocean in the east of the United States coast. From the paper, it is possible to determine that the calculations are likely to lead to the achievement of lower values in comparison to some of the estimates from Ward and Aspaugh. However, there is a possibility of predicting a maximum run-up in some of the places that would be affected by the impact. The impact is indicative of a random process in time as well as in the geographical space. However, the estimates of such an impact are uncertain, considering that the impact rates are based on dynamical considerations. For this reason, it would be possible to determine the impact from history. From the empirical formulas indicated, there is a possibility of evaluating the frequency of the impact, taking into account the fact that the existing data that would provide contradictory results are likely to yield contradictory results. On the other hand, some of the environmental consequences are likely to be uncertain.

References

Berger, M.J., LeVeque R.J. (1998). Adaptive Mesh Refinement Using Wave- Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems. SIAM J Numerical Anal 35, 2298-2316.

Clawpack, (2009). Clawpack (Conservation Laws Package). Retrieved from: <http://www.amath.washington.edu/~claw/clawpack.org>

Crawford, D.A., Malder C.L. (1998). Modeling asteriod impact and tsunami. Sci. Tsunami Hazards 16, 21-30.

Gisler, G., Weaver R., Mader C., Gittings M.L. (2003). Two- and three-dimensional simulations of asteroid ocean impacts. Sci Tsunami Hazards 21, 119-134.

Glasstone, S., Dolan P.J. (1977). The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, 3rd ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, US

Grieve, R.A.F. (1990). Impact cratering on the Earth. Scientific American 262, 66-73.

Jewitt, D. (2000). Eyes wide shut. Nature 403, 145–146.

Kharif C., Pelinovsky E. (2005). Asteroid impact tsunamis. C.R. Physique 6, 361-366.

LeVeque, R.J. (2002). Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems, University Press Cambridge.

Malder, C.L., Gittings M. (2003). Dynamics of water cavity generation, Sci. Tsunami Hazards 21, 91-102.

Ward, S. N., Asphaug E. (2003). Asteroid impact tsunami of 2880 March 16. Geophys. J. Int. 153, F6–F10.

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