Tourism Motivation and Behavioral Segmentation, Milton Keynes as a Destination
Tourism is a preferred leisure time activity. The motivation which triggers an individual to select particular hobbies and places for holiday is exciting tasks, which permit for a healthier comprehension of people’s attitude and behavior in the area of free time utilization. The motives why individuals prefer a tourist place in place of another are vital matters for both schedulers and administrators of tourism industry. Motivation is the compelling push which makes a person to undertake some action. This means that inspiration triggers a person to act on something. Motivation is therefore the starting point of all conduct as well as traveling. Tourist inspiration is the international incorporation and interaction of natural and social forces which provide worth and bearing to tour options, attitudes and familiarity (Maslow, 1943).
Segmentation is used to separate consumers into clusters with universal wants and needs so as to produce specific commodities and services to fulfill each cluster’s of requirements. This is a tool to cluster clients into different cluster depending on their assortment of distinctiveness, which will permit for additional objective oriented marketing. Moreover, the industry of tourism plays a fundamental position to the financial system of a country in particular and to the cities. Milton Keynes is a city that has stood in the lime light of tourism and as such has remained an attraction site for customers from all parts of the world both young and old (Nick & Gyimothy, 2002).
People’s inspiration to act is an exciting issue to discover, particularly in comprehension of free time motivation. The idea of motivation in a marketing framework is described and comprises the surroundings of motivation in a tourism perspective. Motivations are the primary rationale for a specific traveling conduct and are a fundamental task in comprehension of the assessment of tourists’ processes, as well as evaluating the succeeding contentment of tourist’s anticipation (Songshan & Hsu, 2009).
Motivation is basically the means that respond to the doubt concerning the reason why and how individuals’ behavior is triggered and directed. For that reason, motivation is well thought-out as the inside causes that inflate and influence individual behavior. It is expressed as a compelling power that causes us to be in motion. In the same way, motivation can be described as an “inner force” that pulls an individual to take action and offer a way to the conduct. Motivation itself is the progressions that guide individual to act as they act and the procedure start when a want occur that a user desires to gratify. Once the want has been triggered, a situation of hostility present that coerce the customer to try to lessen or eradicate the want (Vroom, 1964).
Moreover, motivation is also described by “motive”. Motive and motivation mean inducement or force. Though, motivation is deeper than motive. Each one has its distinctive type of stuff in the kind of objective of conduct but motivations have outcome of circumstances of contacts. The difference between drive and inspiration is significant since it permit a classification of the vigor that cause people to act permit these intention to be articulated in a different way by various persons. It is affirmed that motives be differentiated from inspiration, where the earlier refer to the nonspecific refresher for conduct. In fact, motivations entail aim or substance and are relations between drive and circumstances (Solomon, 2004).
Motivation is a significant force that incite human into dealings with an endeavor to get what they require. The theory argues that there are three explicit characteristics of motivation, which is the provocation of behavior, the command of behavior, and perseverance of behavior. He elucidates that provocation of behavior entails what stimulate human behavior and command of behavior is relate with what regulate behavior to obtaining a particular goal. Perseverance of behavior is involves how the behavior is maintained (Uysal & Weaver, 1995).
In general, fundamental motivation theory illustrates a vibrant procedure of inside psychosomatic features that is wants, desires, and objective, which create an embarrassing, level of pressure in the human intelligence. These internal wants and ensuing tension then arouse and trigger actions to gratify the wants. Motivation is therefore seen as the stimulation to please wants. Furthermore, based on Maslow (1943), human wants raise other needs and demands provided that the present ones are met (Maslow, 1943).
Segmentation is an end user method that entails sectioning the market into sections of persons with comparable requirements, and same behavioral distinctiveness and who for that reason necessitate same tourism marketing combination. The more thinly the market is sectioned, the better the probability that the target places or attraction sites will be able to put into practice targeted marketing promotion to practical, distinctive groups of guests rather than haphazardly marketing to the market normally. Market segmentation, hence, has important connotation for resolving of tourism promotion strategy (Nick & Gyimothy, 2002).
1.4 Motivation in a Tourism Perspective
As the explanation and theories above demonstrates, in broad-spectrum human conduct is both target to, and comes from discontented wants. Human being does all things for a cause, even though at times it is not simple to decide specifically what the cause is. To appreciate motivation in tourism perspective is to understand what motivates tourists to select a specified destination. The definition of tourist motivation is the international assimilation network of natural and social forces which provide worth and route to travel options, conduct and familiarity (Uysal & Weaver, 1995). Why do a number of individuals choose to go to Milton Keynes on their leisure time, whereas others use their free time visiting to other places? If we imagine tourists create choice concerning their destinations for specific motive, we can take up that those motives are a purpose of their inspirations (Seyhmus & Uysal, 1996).
Human being has the appropriate motivation right to travel, the type of picnic and places to visit is often determined on the basis of perception or value of a variety of alternatives in the available in the market. It is additionally stated that human beings then travel for holidays due to various reasons and they take part in the creation of the picnics in a variety of ways (Ragheb & Tate, 1993).
Motivation in a tourism perspective thus responds to the problem of what excite an individual to take a trip. The responses will denote main aspects which inspire the traveler to buy a specific tourism item for consumption. The responses can be divided into three categories: free time, or business reasons, or all together. There are six major factors that inspire human being to tour certain target places: bodily, emotive, private, individual growth; class and social. In particular, persons who have also one or some or all of the six factors would decide a target place where they can gratify their inspiration. For example, bodily intention is the intention for rest; sensation motive may be the drive of reminiscence or yearning for a specific place or take pleasure in the romance, etc. Individual motivation might be the need of going to see acquaintances and relatives or create new acquaintances. Personal growth motive may well be the motive of improving knowledge. Motive for status comprise the urge to get something such as uniqueness or style talent and cultural motivation may perhaps be the motive of finding out new cultures (Siew, Lee, & Soutar, 2007).
Human being take a trip because of the factors stated above in order to fulfill their diverse needs, which on the other hand alter their options of target destination places. Therefore, inspirations are the things that influence people’s options of touring diverse ways. Based on theorists’ motivation theory, human being are motivated to do something or select a destination based on the wants. Human beings have a greater drive for achievement more than the wants for belongingness, power, and uniqueness. They strive hard in order to be distinct from others who may have the same needs. They have a drive to do things in a different way from others since this set of human being like to take personal accountability so as to get their own fulfillment from their accomplishments. On top of these they like to set target for themselves in a way so that their goals are not low and easily achievable, and not too high to be realized. In the area of tourism, tourists with high needs for achievement avoid high and low risk situations (Ragheb & Tate, 1993).
Human beings with needs for affiliation more than other needs require the harmonization in interaction with others. In other words, they are vulnerable to the manner, feelings, or conditions of others. Comparable to the wants for belongingness in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the affiliation need is a motivation that can influence people’s attitude and manifest itself in diverse ways. In tourism, affiliation needs is revealed in the need for social encounters that is the need to convene new people, friends and family so as to have good times. Those who have soaring needs for authority like to control and direct others by means of power. Consequently, they have a preference to tour to places where they are famous and where they believe they can cause others appreciate them. In other words, tourists with elevated want for power may have a preference for activities where they can cause others, defeat competitors, win negotiations and make views, or achieve power (Uysal & Weaver, 1995).
Milton Keynes is a tourist destination that has motivated people to visit during their leisure time. This tourism destination have attracted tourist because of the varied attractive sites such as the hotels, restaurants among the many (MiltonKeynes report, 2009).
1.4.1 Leisure Motivation Scale
There are four causes or aspects that can decide the fulfillment derived from leisure interest. These four causes, which often encompass fourteen items, are academic, social, capability, and motivation averting motives. The academic motive evaluates the degree to which persons are motivated to connect in leisure actions which comprise mental tasks such as education, discovering, ascertaining, contemplation or inventing. This mean that academic issues would head persons to come out in leisure tasks which they believe would add to their wisdom (Vroom, 1964).
Secondly, the social constituent evaluates the degree to which individuals involve in leisure actions for social motives. This component comprises two basic requirements, the need for companionship and interpersonal relations, at the same time as the second is the want for the high regard of others. These needs stimulate persons take part in activities that might fulfill their wants of possessions, self-esteem and admiration from others (Maslow, 1943).
The third motive, the capability motive inspires persons to look for challenges and compete. Finally, the stimulus averting motive evaluates the force to run away from life circumstances. It is the necessity for some persons to stay away from collective associates, to seek privacy and calm surroundings to search for rest and to unravel themselves. This last motive constituent involves the reality that a number of people need to run away from their everyday life to get something fresh and to relax (Terry & Hsu, 2006).
The destination site adopted has utilized all the aspects described above. We see that there are various education institutions within the Milton Keynes that ranges from small institutions to higher institutions of learning. This alone motivates an individual to visit such a destination points as there are social activities aiding people to learn and at the same time to enjoy themselves (Solomon, 2004).
1.4.2 Push and pull theory of motivation
In general, tourists’ inspiration is described by means of the definition of a force that causes individual to travel. This is split into two categories: internal forces and external forces. According this theory, tourists are pressed by inspiration into the choice creation of touring and are drag by target distinctiveness. The push inspiration is justified by need for run away, relaxation and recreation, status, wellbeing and health, exploration, social contact, family unions, and enthusiasm. In dissimilarity, the pull inspiration is established by targets places appeal, for example, seashores, state museums, or established cultures (Siew, Lee, & Soutar, 2007).
Appreciation of the foundation of tourists’ inspiration can assist Tourism Company or companies to develop good company procedures and policies to uphold and expand their own industry. To appreciate motivation theory in a tourism perspective is to recognize what inspire tourists to prefer a certain target places. Through this, Tourism Company can decide how to employ the learning to know what feature (s) of their position inspires tourists to tour, and in turn how to keep and build up the location to draw more tourists. If not, they may possibly just grow without any design or purpose. This occasionally would head to a predicament of building away from what clients need and want (Ragheb & Tate, 1993).
Understanding needs theories will assist us be aware of what clients want during their lodge as the main stage want, as well as what will be the subsequently phase of their wants, so that we can arrange how to convene all of their prospect and requirements. This is superior to simply presenting services and goods with no any order of precedence. Secondly, it will assist in spotting what type of tourists are in which phase of the necessities theories so that focus is put on how to meet the requirements as they increase and progress. The custom at times is not precisely the similar as what the theories investigated, nevertheless, by learning the theories we can know the usual rules to go after in doing trade in a tourism area (John & Horner, 2003).
Milton Keynes is an all round attractive city that pulls and push individuals and families to visit because of the available facilities that caters for the needs of all people. The attraction site has considered different age levels ranging from the young to the adults (MiltonKeynes report, 2009).
1.4.3 Wants-based Motivation
The idea of satisfying wants and the balance that fallout from congregating wants are basic to the majority motivation theories. There is an implied postulation in all tourist inspiration studies, that the client will select the target or type of celebration or vacation that will most excellent meet the desires or requirements. The idea of balance that fallout when no inconsistency arise amid the fancy conduct and actual conduct. This idea of symmetry is intrinsic in the majority theories of motivation. Maslow’s logical arrangements of needs theory even though developed in the area of psychology has turn out to be extensively important as the well known general theory and has been used to account for motivation in various disciplines. Needs-based inspiration theories have been disapproved of in the tourism and other client’s motivation literature. Even as they have been recognized as valuable for attracting attention, a broad spectrum of diverse wants that can inspire human actions call for more than a comprehension of human wants, since information of people’s wants will not automatically tell us what they will really do to satisfy such wants. Certain disapproval of Maslow’s hierarchy needs theory comprises its recognized power of being adequately general to cover the majority of list of human needs, imply that the ideas are too general (Maslow, 1943).
Despite this disapproval, Maslow’s hierarchy is well thought-out as a helpful instrument for comprehension of consumer inspiration, creating marketing strategy, suitable advertising attraction and as the foundation for market differentiation and product location since consumer commodities often act to fulfill each of the need stage. Maslow’s need hierarchy is an emotional activator that permits marketers to converse with their target clients on an individual, significant level that goes above product value. In specific, the manner in which an people’s needs might be interpreted into motivated conduct is essential when dealing with tourist motivation and other issues must be put into thought if the justification of tourist inspiration is to be of beneficial in foresee tourist behavior (Terry & Hsu, 2006).
Based on the theory, the destination site is one of the best sites that can satisfy the needs of a human being according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The need of belongingness and self esteem can be fully met at Milton Keynes (MiltonKeynes report, 2009).
1.4.4 Expectancy Theory of motivation
Forecasting on the cause of motivation on conduct also necessitates an awareness of the procedures whereby wants are changed into aggravated behavior and, in specific, of the way people prospect give aggravated conduct its direction. Wants-based theory of motivation is mainly based on a content theory of inspiration and disregards more new progress in motivation theory such as employment motivation theory, expectation theory or valence instrumentality- expectancy theory. Vroom (1964) put ahead two equations the initial one of which has been employed to account for or forecast work-related preference and job contentment, the second being to give details or calculate work-related selection, staying in a job and job endeavors (Vroom, 1964).
Expectancy theory, all through the ideas of valence (prettiness), instrumentality (for attaining other result) and expectancy state the thought that inspiration is a function of the prettiness of the outcome and the expectation of attaining that result. Expectancy theory permit a lot of the existing ideas tourist motivation study to be included within a definite theoretical structure i.e., wants theories such as Maslow and Murray; emotional characteristic of tourist motivation – the requirements which bring about the wish to tour in the first place – with the cognitive characteristic – the choice creation concerned in selecting whether to go on holiday and, if so, where (Nick & Gyimothy, 2002).
They further assert that work-related (or holiday) favorite and career (or holiday) substitute appear to have the furthermost significance to tourist motivation. It is suggested that an expectation model of holiday first choice and alternative, which include wants, prettiness (valence) of holiday characteristics, comparative favorite of dissimilar holidays, and the inspiring issues of know-how of holiday target places distinctiveness; restraining issues such as cost, desired place; expectations; and influential of holidays for giving characteristic. All of these are predisposed by a diversity of informants including flyers, guide books and other people’s knowledge, and also by the personal own encounter of preceding holidays of the similar or a comparable type; therefore the feedback loops built into the representation. They also come up to a theoretical selection of holiday which recognizes the significance of both push and pull aspect (Solomon, 2004).
The expectation theory of tourist motivation stresses the association between inspiration, favorite and selection. It is essentially a wants-based model than a values-based model of tourist motivation that then looks at prettiness, instrumentality and prospects of results as well as the manipulating factors of know-how of tourist goods distinctiveness and other restrictive factors. There is a substitute to see inspiration and anticipation configuration, the undertaking of which is based on both the deeds notion of drive lessening and the cognitive concept of outlook and ideals. A restriction of the expectation theory and model, is that the involvedness of expectancy theory creates it hard to use the mock-up to foresee individual conduct, and hard to gauge since there are a lot of variables. This complex method of examining inspiration, work to draw attention that tourist motivation is, itself, a multifaceted area of interest (Ragheb & Tate, 1993).
1.5 Segmentation of the Tourism Market
A tourism market contain of all persons with adequate motivation, capability and chance to tour a target place or appealing centre. Market segmentation is an end user method that entails sectioning the market into sections of persons with comparable requirements, and same behavioral distinctiveness and who for that reason necessitate same tourism marketing combination. The more thinly the market is sectioned, the better the probability that the target places or attraction sites will be able to put into practice targeted marketing promotion to practical, distinctive groups of guests rather than haphazardly marketing to the market normally. Market segmentation, hence, has important connotation for the resolving of tourism promotion strategy (Nick & Gyimothy, 2002).
While segmentation is supposed to be concerning trying to choose which reasons or variables contain the most persuasions on tourist behavior, in real sense what majority of individuals describe as segments are only classifications. Furthermore, segmentation can be: a priori – where the principle used to split the market is identified or a posteriori – where no such previous information is available. Proof put forward that many target places and appeal sites still support a priori segmentation method using simply available geographic or demographic facts. Specified that this technique of subdivision has been identified as being as helpful, its significance evidently is doubtful in nowadays aggressive tourism market. More positively, the majority victorious and modern UK target have at present build up segmentation plans depending on tourist motivations and behavior instead of being lured to the conservative way of easy grouping (Terry & Hsu, 2006).
1.5.1 Geographic and demographic segmentation
This is a methods based on distinguishing marketing plans that have conventionally been supported by regional or demographic differences in tourist attitude. These techniques are helpful as an opening point for tourism companies inhibited by inadequate capital to acquire a better comprehension of their market. They are fairly simple to describe and evaluated and the data used to assist section the market is often liberally obtainable from public resources. In this esteem they do give a transparent if somewhat limited outline of guests and other tourism clients that might be utilized to expand marketing plans such as choosing where and how to encourage tourism goods (Terry & Hsu, 2006).
However, these methods have a variety of disadvantages: First, They are outdated and primitive, partly since they depend profoundly on quantitative and based on facts data to create universal postulation which are then applied to attempt to give explanation on tourist conducts. Secondly, they lead to major label that typically wrap up or conceal significant difference in tourist attitude. Yet a lot of target places, attractions sites and tourism provider business still put huge stress on geographic and demographic sectioning, which is called the past methods terminated a decade ago. So as to create a supplementary exhaustive outline of possible markets it is obvious that the real advantage of assuming a geographic and demographic segmentation tactic is as a basis for further extra tourist oriented techniques (Uysal & Weaver, 1995).
1.5.2 Profile SegmentationThis is the combination of geographic and demographic segmentation factors to evaluate tourism clients by where they reside. This grouping method is put on the foundation of facts such as kind of housing, profession, number and age of kids and way of life. This method can as well be applied to discover the demographic distinctiveness of specific environs. Separating the tourism market by alignment of persons in terms of one or more outline features like age and way of life divisions can assist destination marketing companies to liaise with them more successfully and efficiently, mainly when joint with extra lifestyle facts where probable.
Even though these outlines are comparatively simple to generate and used, they are in the major comparatively unfortunate methods of prediction of tourists’ leisure benefits and related touristic conduct. In current years, though, there have been several efforts by business professional companies to create geo-demographic sectioning more complicated to give a more improved method to tourism marketing (Terry & Hsu, 2006).
These arrangements are fundamentally multivariable categorization of the Milton Keynes inhabitants accumulated on the foundation of quantitative information. They give helpful insights into tourists’ conduct, which are then employed to aim particular neighborhoods or market sections so as to give high price tourism goods and services and better stages of tourist contentment (MiltonKeynes report, 2009).
1.5.3 Psychographic segmentationThis technique attempt to classify persons based on the lifestyle and their characteristics of each individual. This has come to be referred to as too difficult to use but it is fashionable. This is due to the fact that it encompasses intangible personality and variables such as the beliefs, opinions, interest, and aspirations of potential tourist or clients.
This method has come to be used due to the major disadvantages and limitations of segmentation method and these assist decision makers to get deep into the mind of the tourist so as to get an understanding of their driving behavior (Nick & Gyimothy, 2002).
While psychographic segmentation was regarded as less technical than other type of sectioning, scientific growth now signify that this slight segmentation method is known as being extra suitable for the tourism division. Without a doubt, the augmented advancement of psychographic sectioning is now giving full end user insights to permit tourist target places to grasp jurisdiction of their guest wealth and aggressively plan and make target places knowledge to match the requirements of numerous tourist segments at the same time. Geo-demographic techniques, like CAMEO which integrate some way of life variables, have been employed in this competence by targets like Milton Keynes (Seyhmus & Uysal, 1996).
1.5.5 Multivariable segmentationThis technique entails setting an assortment of pertinent characteristics pull out from all four groups in conjunction with the tourist market measured. In reality, as the business geo-demographic structures have progressed they have as a result become multivariable throughout the integration of geographic, demographic and psychographic features to partition the market into valuable and useful clusters. The method necessitates that tourist clients are grouped based on their surroundings, wants and requirements (Ragheb & Tate, 1993). To decide whether the tourist market has been appropriately divided, the subsequent standard should be taken into account: Effective and distinctive needs, Measurability of client’s behaviors, Accessibility of target places put in mind the cost, Actionable to allow full exploitation of opportunities arising (Vroom, 1964).
1.5.6 Ark Leisure segmentation technique
As viable target places and tourism companies seem to build up marketing approaches that aim openly specific and distinguishing sections with high significance tourism proposal to distribute genuine knowledge and better stages of assistance, it is no longer adequate to fragment exclusively by place, socio-economic or geo-demographic distinctiveness. Objective marketing approaches conventionally describe target markets as ‘ABC1s’ or employed demographic facts to forecast their capacity and readiness to tour a place or attraction site in the Milton Keynes (MiltonKeynes report, 2009).
Nevertheless, this kind of subdivision is nowadays well thought-out to be too conventional and unsophisticated. This is as a result that it does not explain for personal favorite and flavor, ideals and familiarity or other considerable pressure on tourism acquisition actions. Furthermore, behavioral and psychographic classifications are also taken to be unsuitable for many target places owing to their incapability to foresee upcoming behavior or to explain for disparities in life situation correspondingly. Ark Leisure model in is an advanced and extremely distinguishing values-based structure. This gives a fragmented and processed client facts and detailed comprehension of diverse kind of guests in each part of the market (Siew, Lee, & Soutar, 2007). The Ark Method when refined consists of three elements: Ambitions- this element identify sections based on insight and decision of worth, Life issue and alternative drivers- for instance family lifestyle, and Tourism buy circumstances – housing and desirability inclination, reason of tour, and fulfillment with alternatives formerly completed. One cause for its reputation is that consumer have been capable to outline their guests to set up the precise causes why and how unlike target places or desirability inside a section demand to diverse guests. This method is preferred since it acknowledges that ideals and way of life shape visitors tourism requirements, which then persuade and influence their trip. The insertion of the procure position aspect gives an added segmentation advantage as it mirror the reality that populace make voyage and other tourism choices related on whether the target place or attraction site convene both their ambitions as well as realistic and personal necessities (John & Horner, 2003).
1.6 ConclusionTo appreciate motivation theories in a tourism perspective and segmentation is to recognize what inspire tourists to prefer a certain target destination. Through this, Tourism Companies can decide how to employ this to know what feature (s) of their position inspires tourists to tour, and in turn how to keep and build up the location to draw more tourists. If not, they may possibly just grow without any design or purpose. This occasionally would head to a predicament of building away from what clients require.
Understanding these theories will assist us be aware of what clients want during their stay as the main requirement, as well as what will be the subsequent phase of their needs, so that we can arrange how to convene all of their prospect and requirements. This is superior to simply presenting services and goods with no any order of precedence. Secondly, it will assist in spotting what type of tourists are in which phase of the necessities theories so that focus is put on how to meet the requirements as they increase and progress. The custom at times is not precisely the similar as what the theories investigated, nevertheless, by learning the theories we can know the usual rules to go after in doing trade in a tourism area.
Devoid of suitable and successful segmentation, all other promotion actions are possible to be average at best. At the same time as the tourism division has conventionally remain behind other businesses in making use of the idea of segmentation in promotion choice creation, there is proof to propose that more and more improved market assortment is now the foundation on which reserve distribution resolution at a str