Training assessment of lulu hypermarket and its efficiency
A research proposal submitted to the fulfillment of
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501425” CHAPTER 1 PAGEREF _Toc377501425 h 2
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501426” INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc377501426 h 2
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501427” The Problem and Its Background PAGEREF _Toc377501427 h 2
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501428” Conceptual Framework (Research Paradigm) PAGEREF _Toc377501428 h 2
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501429” Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc377501429 h 3
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501430” Terms of Reference PAGEREF _Toc377501430 h 4
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501431” Hypotheses of the Study PAGEREF _Toc377501431 h 4
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501432” Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc377501432 h 5
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501433” Chapter II PAGEREF _Toc377501433 h 6
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501434” Review of Related Literature PAGEREF _Toc377501434 h 6
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501435” Introduction PAGEREF _Toc377501435 h 6
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501436” Importance of Right workforce PAGEREF _Toc377501436 h 6
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501437” Importance of employee involvement PAGEREF _Toc377501437 h 7
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501438” Chapter III Methodology PAGEREF _Toc377501438 h 9
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501439” Research Design PAGEREF _Toc377501439 h 9
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501440” Introduction PAGEREF _Toc377501440 h 9
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501441” Research strategy PAGEREF _Toc377501441 h 9
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501442” Research approach PAGEREF _Toc377501442 h 10
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501443” Data collection PAGEREF _Toc377501443 h 11
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501444” Feasibility PAGEREF _Toc377501444 h 11
HYPERLINK l “_Toc377501445” Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc377501445 h 13
CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONThe Problem and Its BackgroundDue to the high competition in the global market, there has been a great need for various companies to re-strategize their operation formulae to ensure success. The re-organization of operational strategies also entail employee training and assessments. There are various methods of improving productivity in an organization as far as employee training is concerned. Improving employees’ morale through training in a company enhances feel of ownership and satisfaction among employees which helps in improving performance quality. There are many factors that affect efficiency of training and assessments in various organizations. This study embarked on a mission to investigate how training programs in Lulu are developed, implemented as well as how they impact on the overall performance of supermarkets. In doing this, the study narrowed down its emphasis on Lulu supermarket.
Conceptual Framework (Research Paradigm)Theoretical Framework of Job Attitude
Organizations generally value employee loyalty and dedication (O’Driscoll & Randall, 1999). Organizational behavior research over the past 15 years has resulted in empirical studies involving job- and work-related attitudes (Steel & Rentsch, 1997; Taber, 1991). Specific focus has been applied to employee training and assessment (Hart, 1999); job involvement (Brown, 1996); and job commitment (Shore & Tetrick, 1991).
Job involvement, often referred to as job commitment, has been associated with organizational support (O’Driscoll & Randall, 1999). The constructs of job attitudes and job involvement have been paired in studies of research stability (Steel & Rentsch, 1997); commitment and support (O’Driscoll & Randall, 1999); and organizational citizenship behaviors (Bettencourt et al., 2001; Moorman, 1991; Organ & Konovsky, 1989).
Job-related attitudes, similar to attitudes in general, are derived from individual perceptions. Individuals can formulate perceptions according to their thought processes or outside influences (Elbert, Seale, & McMahon, 2001). Employers may perceive that employees are pleased or at least content with their jobs based on performance (Wright & Cropanzano, 2001); compliance with the rules of power sources (Koslowsky, Schwarzwald, & Ashuri, 2001); and low turnover rates (Spillane, 1973). Employees may also formulate perceptions of their organizations based upon their employers’ concern about, commitment to, and appreciation of the employees (Brief & Weiss, 2002; Hershberger et al., 1994; McAllister & Bigley, 2002) and consumers (Anderson & Mohr, 2003; Bettencourt et al., 2001).
A characteristic of company loyalty and organizational citizenship behavior is reflected in the employees’ representation of the organizations to consumers (Bettencourt et al., 2001). Thus, research on attitudes is important because it contributes to job behavior. O’Driscoll and Randall (1999) provided an example of the importance of understanding job attitudes and the ways in which they affect job behavior. Job-related attitudes such as training and assessment , job involvement, and organizational commitment are general representations of distinct constructs (Brooke, Russell, & Price, 1988).
Statement of the ProblemResearch Question/Problem
The research aims at examining the factors affecting employee training and assessment and relationship among the factors and the performance of employee in Lulu hypermarket.
Terms of ReferenceThe objective is to find out the factors affecting the performances of Lulu hypermarket’s employees and how the overall performance of the company is affected.
Through the research, various methods and techniques employed in Lulu hypermarket in training their employees are determined. The limitations as related to employee training and assessment and retention are also highlighted.
The research provides recommendation based on the analysis of the steps and strategies Lulu hypermarket should employee to train and assess their employees.
Hypotheses of the StudyVarious studies have noted that satisfaction of workforce depends on behaviors of management and employees themselves. There is a need to understand how consumers’ and employees’ behaviors, geographical location and gender affect overall performance of a company. However, it must be noted that training of workforce is not only the factor and that it has many intervening variables which have to be considered.
For example, suppose a business is not willing to increase employee loyalty through training, there are lower chances of its success. On a similar basis, a company which wants to make sure it satisfies its employees has to ensure it examines their training with respect to changes in service quality and market approach techniques used may also not be planning to be successful.
According to findings of Lin (2007), there exists a strong positive correlation between service quality and workforce training in most companies. Form the 134 respondent in Lin (2007)’s study, nearly 92% showed a grater satisfaction when perceived the services offered to be of high quality. Refrain to marketing strategies, a significant proportion of respondents, nearly 83%, showed that marketing technique used by a company is important in determining employees’ satisfactions and retention.
One study carried out in Germany (Bryan and Locke 1967a), indicated that there is a connection between training and assessment of employees and consumers’ satsfaction. Employee training which is related to enhanced employee loyalty, employee retention, continuity and finally increased productivity. These findings are also similar to Bryan and Locke 1967a who state that employee training and assessment and brand loyalty are related. This indicates that that greatest care must be considered when attempting to develop satisfaction strategies (Lin, 2007). Significance of the StudyEmployees are considered as one of the important aspects of an organization and improving their morale improves their performance. Understanding people from different backgrounds is challenging especially to managers from different origins where they have different life experiences. A lot of wisdom is required of the managers dealing with employees from different nationalities to link the needs of different people and improve their productivity while maintaining low employee turnover.
The researcher believes that the research will improve knowledge to managers at Lulu hypermarket especially in the areas of human relations. The research will be helpful in improving employee morale and understanding different needs of employees working in a diversified environment.
Chapter IIReview of Related LiteratureIntroductionThe second chapter, literature review entails an investigation of past research and articles and explanation of the involved concepts in regard to jot attitude and employee training and assessment . Literature review covers various topics. The first section covers the significance of employee retention and performance engagement. Role of Lulu hypermarket’s philosophy and culture in creating and engaging workplace environment is also discussed. The theoretical framework of this study maintains a top-down order that begins with the current business environment and ends with a review of the issues associated with leadership, motivation, rewards, and human resource management.
Importance of Right workforce
The volume of research on employee job attitudes reflects their importance to organizations in terms of identifying satisfaction, estimating loyalty, and reducing turnover (Knoop, 1995; Porter, Steers, & Modway, 1974). The value of examining performance in terms of manufacturing or assembly has been an important area of research, in which job attitudes has a direct correlation on job performance (Anderson & Mohr, 2003; Bettencourt, Gwinner, & Meuter, 2001). Job performance on the other hand, is also critical especially on the field of treatment services to the victims of natural disasters.
As of late, no studies are known to have been conducted on the job attitudes of employees providing disaster relief services. This study intends to explore the possibility of enhancing the state of employee engagement and retention in the disaster management sector (DMS), and also to explore the ways to attract quality employees to the DMS. Since this sector demands a wholehearted commitment from the employees to deal successfully with one of the noble professions in the world.
Importance of employee involvement
The importance of employee involvement and interaction in supporting disaster victims (Beck & Franke, 1996), who are immediately confronted with emotions that include fear, a profound sense of loss, and anxiety cannot be understated (Albano, Causey, & Carter, 2001). Disaster victims face life-altering injury and death resulting from natural disasters (Beck & Franke, 1996). The trauma of experiencing a natural disaster may result in extreme stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (Miller & Kraus, 1994).
The aforementioned consequences of disasters clearly show the gravity of the jobs associated with providing relief, and they hint at the challenge of attracting and training talented and committed employees in the DMS. Higher remuneration cannot be the sole driver of engaging, attracting, or training quality employees in this sector; prospective employees with qualifications can easily choose risk-free jobs instead. Thus, the DMS needs to strike the right chord in employees to ignite the missionary approach in them.
A brief explanation of the activities of the American Red Cross (ARC) corroborates the fact that the DMS truly needs committed and motivated workers more than anything else (ARC, 2006). The ARC’s disaster relief employees are charged with providing assistance and meeting victims’ immediate emergency disaster-caused needs, where they must support the ARC’s mission and extend every available courtesy. In response to these natural disasters, the ARC deploys volunteers to provide emergency services to victims.
The magnitude of devastation can sometimes leave relief workers wondering where to start. During the 2005 hurricane season, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States. Hurricane Katrina flooded neighborhoods and literally destroyed part of the state of Louisiana, particularly the city of New Orleans, by killing more than 1,193 people and destroying most of the human made structures (Hine, 2005). Hurricane Rita followed Katrina weeks later, further damaging what was left in that region and causing more power outages and evacuations.
The aforementioned examples highlight the gravity of disaster management and show the levels of dedication and commitment required to meet such challenges. Therefore, researching the attitudes of employees in disaster relief work may provide valuable information to first responders. The groundbreaking work by Steers and Porter (1979) underscored the importance of work and motivation. Bettencourt et al. (2001) also supported this premise. According to Steers and Porter, The concept of the organization has long symbolized the efficiency, effectiveness and rational allocation of resources for tasks to be accomplishment (p. 555).
Employers may perceive that their employees are pleased or at least content with their jobs based on performance (Wright & Cropanzano, 2001); compliance with the rules of power sources that may reflect what employees are experiencing (Koslowsky et al., 2001); and low employee turnover rates (Spillane, 1973). Employees also may formulate perceptions of their organizations based on their employers’ concern about, commitment to, and appreciation of their employees (Brief & Weiss, 2002; Hershberger, Lichtenstein, & Knox, 1994; McAllister & Bigley, 2002) and their consumers (Anderson & Mohr, 2003; Bettencourt et al., 2001).
A characteristic of company loyalty and organizational citizenship behavior is reflected in the employees’ representation of their organizations to consumers. Bettencourt et al. (2001) asserted that “contact employee participation in organizational citizenship behaviors is basic to a company’s ability of meeting changing employee needs (p. 30). Training and assessment , job involvement, and organizational commitment are components of the attitudes descriptive of the workplace environment. These attitudes affect job behavior and can be instrumental in the level of employee output.
Job attitude is the outcome of the collective influence of several factors that include organizational philosophy, leadership behavior, motivation and reward systems, and cultural and demographic influences. These factors are dispersed among three spheres of the workplace: company dimensions, job dimensions, and payment or compensation system.
Chapter III MethodologyResearch DesignIntroduction
This chapter entails an elaboration of the manner in which data for analysis was collected, arranged, sorted and analyzed in order to generate information for formulation of conclusions and recommendations. Data relevant to the aspects of employee training and assessment at Lulu hypermarket was collected from secondary sources and analyzed to help in evaluating various aspects of employee training and assessment at the Lulu hypermarket , Thailand. These models are deemed sufficient to ensure reliability of the responses and the outcomes of analysis.
Research strategyIn this study, the research applied qualitative research strategies in order to capture all aspects of the data collected. Through this model, hypotheses are tested in order to assess the impact of variability in the data. The qualitative approach helped in the examination of the current organizational elements that would impact the employee training and assessment while exploring the various factors that may act as drivers to the satisfaction of employees at the Lulu hypermarket outlets. By evaluating the aspects in this format, it was possible to come up with or propose strategies to be adopted by the Lulu hypermarket organization to ensure utmost satisfaction of the employees and also make recommendations for future research where a gap is deemed to exist.
The research design for this study is of the case study type, and Lulu hypermarket is the subject of the case. Ayelet et al (2008) state that the primary concern of such studies should be to find out “what is fit for a particular setting or case under given circumstances”. By conducting the employee training and assessment research, the study attempted to assess the best method of handling the employees to ensure maximum satisfaction hence maximum productivity.
The study takes qualitative approach was to achieve the desired objectives. It is only questionnaires that were employed in this research. The qualitative approach was to help in the examination of the current job-related demographic factors. Various factors that act as drivers to the compensation strategies adopted by the organization were explored. This method was appropriate because the research aims were to examine the employee training and assessment in Lulu hypermarket bearing in mind the diverse nature of the contemporary workforce.
Random sampling was used whereby questionnaires were issued at random to people working in Lulu hypermarket. This was with expectations of ensuring that each person in the organization is accorded similar chance of participating in the research.
For the part of the questionnaire, the study intended to use an introductory letter to clarify what the research study was all about and give a clarification of the estimated or approximate duration of the interview. The letter was also be an opportunity to explain the purpose of the study, assure the respondents of confidentiality, and emphasize to them that contribution is voluntary. Two types of questionnaires that capture all that the researcher would like to get from the respondent were designed and several copies produced. A different questionnaire was to be administered to management.
The questionnaires were sent three days after sending the introduction letters (Kacel et al., 2005). This was to give sufficient time for the employees to make a decision to participate in filling the questionnaire or not. The questionnaires were numbered and employees were either choose to write their names or not. Where probing was necessary, the researcher will first asked for employee’s permission to do so.
There are various advantages of using questionnaires. Caldwell (2003) states that qualitative research is targeted at comprehending human behaviors and reasons that govern those characters. The why and how of decision making are investigated by qualitative research design. In qualitative research, smaller samples are mostly required as compared to bigger samples (Balabanis and Souitaris, 2007).
Qualitative data gained from questionnaires helps the research to analyze information in much less time as compared to interviewing people. This further helped the researcher to come up with feasible conclusions relating to employee training and assessment in Lulu hypermarket. With the confidentiality of the information, respondent will also feel free to provide sensitive information which they could have not provided through interview. One disadvantage of questionnaires is that it does not allow room for further probing. It also becomes disadvantageous when the respondent fills irrelevant information.
Data collectionThe researched focused on qualitative data about the employees of Lulu hypermarket. The questions were based on factors that influence employees’ morale working in the organization (Lulu hypermarket). Questionnaires were designed with board members to understand the overall employee training and assessment in all subsidiaries of the organization and other factors affecting international relations between employees. The researcher identified the strategies being adopted by the management to understand specific needs of different employees from different cultural backgrounds. Data from employees about how they think managers influence their morale, how they feel when their morale is low and how this influences their performance, how they feel when their morale is high and how this influences their performance, what they feel when a manager behaves in a way that increase and decreases their morale were collected.
Data collection from the organization will be possible since the author has accessibility with the management teams in the company. Access to data required in the research will be possible since permission has been granted by all the management staff of the company. The management team has promised to cooperate in making the project a success as there are many benefits to be accrued from it. Respondents to be interviewed from the organization have responded positively and a smooth process of data collection will be possible.
The author has the required expertise to extract necessary data from the organization as well as from the employees. Direct access to data relating to human resources from different subsidiaries of the company is possible; hence analyzing different aspects of human resources from the different countries where the company operates will be done efficiently. The data to be used will relate to a three year period before the date of conducting the research.
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