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Transition to reception programs for late birthday children

Transition to reception programs for late birthday children

Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429432” Research objectives PAGEREF _Toc385429432 h 1

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429433” Research questions PAGEREF _Toc385429433 h 1

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429434” Transition to reception. Are summer-born children at a disadvantage? PAGEREF _Toc385429434 h 2

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429435” Research methodology PAGEREF _Toc385429435 h 9

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429436” Primary research. PAGEREF _Toc385429436 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429437” Choice of research philosophy PAGEREF _Toc385429437 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429438” Research validity and reliability PAGEREF _Toc385429438 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429439” Ethical consideration PAGEREF _Toc385429439 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429440” Limitations encountered PAGEREF _Toc385429440 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429441” Interview questions PAGEREF _Toc385429441 h 11

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429442” Research findings PAGEREF _Toc385429442 h 11

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429443” The minister also revealed that the government was running more than 30 steering projects offering free children nursing services to the age of two PAGEREF _Toc385429443 h 12

Abstract

The dissertation is shaped around transition to reception programs for late birthday children. It has been imperative to determine their need and how these needs should be met. The determination of the teachers’ awareness of younger children’s needs and what should be done about it is yet another important consideration. The consideration of their age and whether it is related to attainment at this stage but still have to keep in mind that the problem of summer born children underachieving is continuing into the later stages of their education. The paper also posits to find out what teachers assume the problems are of the disparity in age and attainment. This will be based on a small-scale qualitative research for which interviews shall be conduct with key stage one teachers, an educational psychologist and hopefully another lady who is the founder of an outstanding transition to reception program in the midlands.

To support the research and findings, it will be imperative to use results of quantitative research for example about summer born children and attainment. The extent to which teachers care about the problems that summer born children are facing during transition to reception as they are almost a whole year younger than September born children shall also be an important accomplishment of this paper. Between the age of 4 and 5 one year is a big difference. If they care what is done about it and if nobody is willing to engage with the problems due to disparity in age, why is this?

Research objectivesTo ensure the effectiveness of transition to reception that addresses the developmental needs of learning of children

Coherent information to the parents about the learning processes of their children and offer sufficient support to their needs

Effective association with the local pre-schools

Research questions

•       What are the children’s needs at that time?•       What are the pedagogical issues in transition to school?•       What do teachers believe are children’s needs during transition•       Do teachers believe late birthday children are at a disadvantage at this stage?•       What transition to reception programs is in place to support especially younger children?•       What do parents need to contribute to help their children during transition time?

Literature review

Transition to reception. Are summer-born children at a disadvantage?According to Brooker and Broadbent (2003), transition from home to Pre School, to school should involve a lot of strategies especially for summer born children. They argue that the transition period involves a lot of emotional attachments because these children are learning new ideas in every stage. Although the links between the parents and their children continue diminishiong, parents should ensure that the children’s needs are met. They say that transition from nursery to year one should be handled carefully because if the pupils are carelessly handled they might face future consequences such as loss of self esteem and stress.

Transition can be defined as a change from one phase to another. (H Fabian and Dunlop, 2002) Believe that these changes bring about new accelerated demands due to change of environment, time, space, education concept and teaching styles. According to Fabian and Dunlop, 2005) transition can bring anxiety and excitement because of the anticipation of the new beginning. There is the anticipation of making new friends and meeting new people during reception. The idea of apprehension because of the unknown may determine the behavior of a kid in future.

Fabian and Dunlop consider summer born children as pupils with special needs; they therefore consider play as a special tool for transition. They stress that play is important for learning and reception. Finally, they advice on planning as the best way to prepare children for transition. Fabian and Dunlop consider emotional attachment of kids as a tool which influences the children’s well being. They advise on partnership between parents and the peers because this is the only way a summer born child can get a strong emotional attachment. They stress that teachers should play a greater role in assisting summer born children in transition from pre primary through to post primary. They suggest that when children are allowed discontinuity, learning becomes easier. It is therefore important that parents should give children support in order to instill confidence and a smooth transition.

(Curtis 1986; Cleave & Brown 1991; Dowling 1995; Kienig 1999) both argue that ensuring that children get smooth transition is significant to their emotional well being. Transition also involves integration of different communities. It is there fore important tool for inclusion.

Dunlop (2002) says that curriculum of elementary education, the educational philosophy and teaching styles often varies from nursery experience. This usually brings new anxiety accompanied by stress and new challenges. Children can find it difficult to cope with these new changes. He argues that the gap between the education in elementary education and nursery education.

During transition, children tend to be eager to learn from the community.Bayley and Featherstone argue that transition for the children should be proactive and effective if the society expects children to benefit and have a smooth transition. The best way to achieve this they say is by discussion, activities they are assigned and the experience they gain from their seniors.

Brooker (2002) a kid is considered as a child in the family but regarded as a pupil in school. He says that these children usually play differently at home compared to when they enter school which brings emotional difficulties because of the changes in the environment and the general set up. He stresses on the need of strengthening connections between different groups of kids such as the summer born and their peers.

Kienig (2002) Change of institutional culture, environment and pedagogical issues has an impact on a child’s behavior and relationship to others. Transition means learning new rules, new educational culture and new people.Therefore, different expectations are placed on them.

According to Blatchford, Battle & Mays, 1982 transition from home to pre school brings with it new experience and anxiety.Initially,children lack the necessary information and the culture of the new environment which prompt them to be eager to interact with their peers. They advise that parents should constantly help them during the process of learning.

Fabian (2002) suggest that parents and teachers should collaborate in supporting children during transition from home to Pre School. If this is done in early years they will not encounter many hurdles when they progress to higher level learning. Children’s capacity to concentrate, the ability to sit for long hours and the use of their own initiatives is important.

Dunlop (2001) argues that children react differently to changes in environment. He challenges parents to always ask children because this will ensure that they have developed their own ideas. Children may feel embarrassed because they lack knowledge but making them feel recognized will instill confidence in them.

Margetts (2000) says that transition should happen when children are familiar to the environment and ready to adapt. Teachers should have information about the children’s past performance.

(Galton, Gray and Ruddock1999) talk about pedagogical issues during transition to reception. They look at the challenges young children face during transition to reception. Reception to stage one, from infant to maturity can either stagnate or regress. Great changes appear when the kid is transferred from kindergarten to stage one but the difference is more pronounced between summer born and other older groups. They argue that friendly transition can only be possible if the teachers introduce a friendly curriculum. For these kids to have a smooth transition there should be induction programs where they get motivation and the feeling of self worth. Long summer breaks also affect the kids especially the summer borns.Also the mode of examination setting affect the children’s performance.

Kant also explains that transition to reception from infant, pre primary to university is important to kids. He also stresses that during this stage, children are normally emotionally attached to the immediate environment. He advises that parents and teachers should motivate these kids.

Summer-born children are children whose birth occurred during the month of August and they have been found to perform poorly as compared to their peers in all stages of education. This is according to the findings of the research that has been conducted. The academic year which starts from September ending in March give a disadvantage to children born in August who are supposed to sit for their exams one year earlier as compared to the children who were born earlier. The impact of the birth date of a child affects significantly the cognitive outcomes of the child with a “birth penalty” being on the higher side at the time of entering school (Polly, 2009).

This trend tends to a decline with time although the effect is still significant when the child is at the age of 16 to 18. This is the time that the child is supposed to make a decision about their future study as well as employment.

The summer-born children have a slim chance of attaining A*-C GCSE grades which is the requirement for college entrance. Findings indicate that the summer-born children may remain in school past the age of 16 as compared to their peers who were born in September.

For a substantial period of time, there has been an indication of the birth date effects on the qualifications of children in schools. Findings from research have a strong indication that, there is a high profile of disadvantage that summer born children are exposed to. These serious issues have in the past been brought to the attention of the public but the relevant agencies concerned with education as well as training policy have always neglected them (Alison & Ayre, 2005).

Sufficient evidence supports the fact that birth date effects are persistent in the entire period of education as well as training of the child. The summer born children also fail to progress in specific routes and to some education levels. A few number of the summer born children are able to succeed through all levels of education.

There are many theories which try to explain that summer born children are disadvantaged compared to children born before or after this time. Take the case of Vygotsky. He argues that these children tend to copy or seek assistance from the peers and other older children. He further states that teachers often put more emphasis on these children because at this stage these children tend to each other more than they concentrate on the lessons. For instance, if a summer born child finds that his peers are older than him or her, he or she tends to loss self esteem because he or she finds it unfit to associate with because they are more mature (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

Warwick Mansell and Graeme Paton also explained about the challenges these children pass through. To begin with, they said that these children are more likely to commit suicide after repeating classes and left behind by their classmates. They further said that it is hard for them to be professional athletes (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

According to the study done by exam board Cambridge assessment, summer children are not disadvantaged in countries like Finland and Denmark. This is because in Denmark they begin schooling at the age of six while in Finland they start school at the age of seven. They suggested that England should follow suit in order to reduce the chances of these children being disadvantaged. In this study more than three quarter of the children sampled showed that children born in summer in these countries had the same performance with their older counterparts. It further showed that these children are less likely to score good grades in core subjects such as English sciences and Mathematics. It also cited that summer born children have poor school attendance as compared to their peers. It also showed that majority of these children never proceed to university. This is because these children grasp very little in the course of their studies which leave them lagging behind and in the end they lack the required grade to proceed to university level (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

A study conducted by the institute of education and the institute for fiscal studies in London showed that children born in summer struggle in school, both in reading and writing. It also showed that even at the age of sixteen the gap in terms of performance in class will not narrow down with their counterparts and at this stage they are more likely to drop out of school.

Another study conducted by Glasgow city council, (2001) every child should start classes at or after the age of six. It also suggested that boys should start school a year later to prevent them from being locked out of learning for life. It identified Wales and England as countries where children are supposed to start learning when they turn five years. This implies that a child born on Thirty first august will start school on first September while those born on first September will start school one year after the one born in august has resumed. This is an obvious disadvantage to children born in summer.

Parents argue that children born in summer should be delayed for one year. For example, in Scotland children normally start school at the end of February. This is considered a cut off period for them. If the birthday of some children fall between the beginning of march and the middle of august, when the term begins, the parents must ensure their children resume school. But children born between august and in the middle of December can defer but are not allowed to resume nursery education. But the children whose birthdays lie between December and February can defer and also be allowed to start nursery education. This indicates that children born in summer are disadvantaged since they cannot be allowed to defer and at the same time proceed to nursery when the period they deferred elapses. This means that they have to be delayed for a year as others are being taught. Though it’s true, some children consider going to school at an earlier age is stressful due to the fact that they struggle to cope with the environment and also interact with their older counterparts. Some say that starting school at a much older age, say seven years, makes them more relaxed and eager to learn and interact with others. It is evident from the way older students express themselves once faced with challenges (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

Also, some parents argue that girls mature earlier than boys. They therefore suggest that though they are born at the same time, boys should be delayed for one year for them to be mature enough to fit into their autumn born counterparts.

When analyzing the birthday effect, Tim Oats Cambridge assessment further revealed that children born in summer are strongly disadvantaged. In a study which involved the whole system of education, he found that though there are some exceptionally good children, most of them fail to attain the highest level of education. He realized that the birthday effect affect summer children in all levels of education. He stated categorically that strong selection of the kids should be done at all levels to reduce the chances of the summer children being disadvantaged. Among the recommendations he made is for the government to balance the curriculum so that elements such as cognitive, social and emotional developments are considered. He further proposed that pupils should be regrouped to consider the difference in special; needs. He also proposed that the curriculum should be adjusted in various stages of education system. He said that children should be regrouped such that the summer children are grouped together and the other children are grouped separately. Finally he stated that the earlier unites should be optional and once the child matures education should be made compulsory for him. Also he suggested that teachers should be able to manage the differences between children born in summer and the ones not born in summer (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

School drop out for children born in august is more pronounced in countries such as England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Data collected by the institute of fiscal studies from GCSE candidates showed that there is a constant depression of grades by the students born in August through September. Projections showed that by the end of university education, few summer students would have satisfied the examiners while majority would have dropped out of school.

Again, data collected from 13 LEAs which had analyzed GCSE results showed that children born in summer were the lowest attainers while the ones born in autumn were the highest attainers. When they included gender, they discovered that boys were more disadvantaged than girls since the boys tend to grow at a slow pace compared to girls. When the nine subjects that had been examined were analysed, boys were found to have scored one grade lower than girls in the overall results. This further shows that boys born in summer are more disadvantaged than the ones born in autumn. The study also showed that more than half of the summer born children did not pass in the key subjects i.e. mathematics, English and sciences. This study established that the cohort of children born during summer needs special need in terms of education. This is due to the fact that the percentage of children taking at least one subject in GCSE examination drop as the summer students take the A level examination (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

According to the higher education funding council if the children, both summer and a cohort of autumn taking English had the same chances of going to university, then the total number of students would increase by approximately 12000 students. Also, if the number of the students passing Mathematics increased then there would be even higher population joining the university.

During the earlier stages of development culture plays a big role in the growth of summer born children. First, it contributes much of their thinking. During this stage a child is keener in knowing what is happening around him, in the process the child adapts and behave exactly as the surrounding. Secondly, the people around the kid greatly influence his behavior. Much of what he does copies from those who are close to him. This implies that culture determines what the child think and how he thinks.

Vygotskians observes that initially the child learns from the one closer to him but as he grows up he starts assuming responsibilities. He further notes that the summer could be more disadvantaged if they lack good guidance from adults. Since child capabilities largely depend on how well the society relates to him, he therefore advices that in order for this kid to develop intellectually, he should not be treated in isolation. He again identified cognitive development whereby the child is able to learn various experiences involving problem solving. The child can learn from the parent, the teacher, any adult who usually interacts with him or his peers. This is an important stage in child development because it determines how well he can handle his future when faced with challenges (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

According to the national foundation for educational research, September children outperform those born in august throughout primary school. According to the research conducted in the united states of more than 7200 children in primary schools august born children are more disadvantages because they start going to school one year earlier than those born in winter and autumn. Children born in United States normally start school a year earlier than those in Britain. While in Britain the difference between summer born children and autumn born children disappear at the age of twelve but in United States this difference disappear at the age of eight.

Research done by Caroline Sharp and dougal Hutchinson looked at the test scores of pupils aged six, eight years, ten and twelve years. In this study they established that children born between may and august scored an average of six marks less as compared to those pupils born between September and December. At the age of ten the difference did not reduce but when they approach twelve, this difference narrows to insignificant. When the pupils join high school the environment changes. They form new friends; they meet new teachers which mean the expectations of both teachers and pupil’s changes.

Ms Sharp further argues that summer born children lag behind because they are the youngest in class. Their self esteem is affected because they consider themselves weak and less able than their older counterparts. She says that if everyone perceives them as weak then it sticks that they are less able. These pupils perform poorly because even their teachers have less expectation of them. She says that in United States children hold their summer born children for one year because they feel that they might be the youngest in their class. In a country where ministers encourage the setting of examination by ability in primary school where by no allowance is given to children at age five through seven, summer born children are obviously disadvantaged. She proposes that parents should hold their children enough to make the feel at par with the autumn born pupils. The teachers should encourage summer born children so that they can not feel alienated (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

A study by the schools analysis and research division shows that summer birthdays are frequently identified as children with special needs. These children face various challenges which range from their speech, interaction, language and communication. The society in general belief that summer births are less productive as a result they are coupled with many challenges. They include loss of self esteem and stress. The study made the following observations.

Summer born children should start infant schooling one or two terms later than their peers.

Developmentally immature children struggle to understand the curriculum. Early stress and failure affect them and as a result of this they lose self esteem and expectations forcing them to struggle further.

When teachers are setting assessment tests they do not consider the needs of these pupils. This hampers the performance in their profession. It therefore proposed that teachers and parents should closely monitor and guide summer born for them to perform as other kids.

The study also identified mislabeling as one of the things that could make summer born children increase the chances of developing secondary problems such as emotional problems, behavioral difficulties, low self esteem and poor performance in academics.

The study came up with policy options of tackling effects brought by the month of birth.

The first one is to monitor the rate of referral when it comes to relative effect of age.

There should be intervention strategies before referral options are considers. Such strategy will ensure that needs of every kid are considered and proper measures are taken to prevent future problems.

The teachers should use standardized assessments because this is the only way of identifying kids with special needs. It cautions teachers against relying on referrals.

It further proposed that awareness should be increased on teachers concerning the needs of kids born in different months.

The curriculum and expectations should be personalized in order to cater for all the needs of every group.

The study showed that kids have different special needs in different stages. When the children are at age one the needs are different compared to children at age five. That is why teachers are advised in this study to closely monitor the kids, identify their needs in order to know how to treat each case.

According to Sir Jim Rose, summer born children should not defer starting when starting primary school. Parents, teachers and ministers argued that if children are allowed to start school too young they might develop psychological and social problems. This research indicated that the age gap between four years and five years had a significant difference in the way they respond to the societal changes.

The report children born in summer in England should start primary school in the month of September after their fourth birthday. According to him about three quarter of local authorities follow this trend. He argued that generally summer born children who begin primary school late benefit more from elementary education compared to children who are born in summer but started school early. He proposed that children starting school earlier should study part time, fifteen hours per week. His suggestion required that parents must consider education premium for summer born children. But he feared that parents would develop a lot of concern because the curriculum is not standardized which will require policy changes to suit this idea (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

In a research done to establish whether children who postpone their kindergarten education, perform better than those who do not postpone, it was found that it is indeed important to delay the pupils so that they can develop mentally. According to Griffith, Morrison and Albert children who join classes earlier score slightly lower marks in tests than their older counterparts. This is because at that age, the youngest children see the age as a barrier which deter them from performing as the older ones.

This research involved children born in June, July august and September. It involved those who the children who started kindergarten at age five and those who postponed their classes up to age six. The ones who delayed were matched with those who did not delay, also, boys who did not delay were matched with boys who delayed the same was done for girls. They entered a standardized test and the result was used to compare the performance between summer born children who delayed for one year and those who joined kindergarten without delaying. The result showed that those kids who delayed performed better than those who did not delay. When they considered performance between boys and girls in mathematics did not show great difference.

Meisels also discovered that rich families hold their children for a year before they join kindergarten unlike the poor families. This implies that children from poor families are disadvantaged compared to those from the rich families. At the end of the day children from the affluent families perform better academically. Because the children below the age of six use the curriculum which does not meet the demands of every kid, he suggested that these kids be treated differently; at this age they are not mentally fit to tackle the challenges the older ones can tackle (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

Cambridge assessment review of the year 2009 children born in September, October and November perform generally better than the summer born children. This child is likely to tackle the emotional, psychological and physical challenges which he is likely to encounter. This gives them advantage in educational matters. This phenomenon usually extends up to tertiary levels of education. One might be influenced by the birth effect to determine his career.

The institute of fiscal studies also discovered that the dropout children at age twelve is a third of all the summer born children and at the end of A level the drop out level reduces to nine percent. Also when they looked at gender, they realized that the drop out rate for summer born boys is higher compared to girls. Parents believe that this effect is finally eliminated but the research found that it is a persistent effect.

Dhuey and Bedard found that the birth effect persists to maturity. They argue that maturity and ability are different contrary to a common belief by teachers. He says that someone must mature first in order to perform and that people have different abilities.

In his book Malcolm Gladwell the difference in maturity during early years persists. He further suggests if a parent wants his kid to succeed he must provide proper parenting. He says that in America there is a difference between going to college and not going. Birthday effect contributes greatly on the pupils who don’t complete school (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

Parents, for instance in United States tend to hold their children until they attain age ten to twelve. This is aimed at solving the problem of birth date effect. But this he argues that it might bring complications later because the kid may often see himself odd in a class of only younger children than him.

Generally, each individual has his or her own ability, but it is good for parents not to add more problems to others especially for august birthday kids.

Research methodologyIntroduction

This section spells out the procedures and methods that the researcher employed in achieving the objectives of the project so highlighted in the abstract of this paper. It defines the location of the study, research procedures and analysis plan that were addressed in the course of the study consideration when carrying out this particular research. The research was supposed to start with the clear understanding of the research objectives as well as the hypothesis. Success of the project was a factor of the provision of satisfying information in line with the objectives and hypothesis in the determination of transition to reception programs for late birthday children (Alison & Ayre, 2005).

The objective of the research just as a recap is to identify the effective transition to reception programs for late birthday children. It is important to note here that this research was mainly based on the interviews even though other resea

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Transition to reception programs for late birthday children

Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429432” Research objectives PAGEREF _Toc385429432 h 1

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429433” Research questions PAGEREF _Toc385429433 h 1

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429434” Transition to reception. Are summer-born children at a disadvantage? PAGEREF _Toc385429434 h 2

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429435” Research methodology PAGEREF _Toc385429435 h 9

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429436” Primary research. PAGEREF _Toc385429436 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429437” Choice of research philosophy PAGEREF _Toc385429437 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429438” Research validity and reliability PAGEREF _Toc385429438 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429439” Ethical consideration PAGEREF _Toc385429439 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429440” Limitations encountered PAGEREF _Toc385429440 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429441” Interview questions PAGEREF _Toc385429441 h 11

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429442” Research findings PAGEREF _Toc385429442 h 11

HYPERLINK l “_Toc385429443” The minister also revealed that the government was running more than 30 steering projects offering free children nursing services to the age of two PAGEREF _Toc385429443 h 12

Abstract

The dissertation is shaped around transition to reception programs for late birthday children. It has been imperative to determine their need and how these needs should be met. The determination of the teachers’ awareness of younger children’s needs and what should be done about it is yet another important consideration. The consideration of their age and whether it is related to attainment at this stage but still have to keep in mind that the problem of summer born children underachieving is continuing into the later stages of their education. The paper also posits to find out what teachers assume the problems are of the disparity in age and attainment. This will be based on a small-scale qualitative research for which interviews shall be conduct with key stage one teachers, an educational psychologist and hopefully another lady who is the founder of an outstanding transition to reception program in the midlands.

To support the research and findings, it will be imperative to use results of quantitative research for example about summer born children and attainment. The extent to which teachers care about the problems that summer born children are facing during transition to reception as they are almost a whole year younger than September born children shall also be an important accomplishment of this paper. Between the age of 4 and 5 one year is a big difference. If they care what is done about it and if nobody is willing to engage with the problems due to disparity in age, why is this?

Research objectivesTo ensure the effectiveness of transition to reception that addresses the developmental needs of learning of children

Coherent information to the parents about the learning processes of their children and offer sufficient support to their needs

Effective association with the local pre-schools

Research questions

•       What are the children’s needs at that time?•       What are the pedagogical issues in transition to school?•       What do teachers believe are children’s needs during transition•       Do teachers believe late birthday children are at a disadvantage at this stage?•       What transition to reception programs is in place to support especially younger children?•       What do parents need to contribute to help their children during transition time?

Literature review

Transition to reception. Are summer-born children at a disadvantage?According to Brooker and Broadbent (2003), transition from home to Pre School, to school should involve a lot of strategies especially for summer born children. They argue that the transition period involves a lot of emotional attachments because these children are learning new ideas in every stage. Although the links between the parents and their children continue diminishiong, parents should ensure that the children’s needs are met. They say that transition from nursery to year one should be handled carefully because if the pupils are carelessly handled they might face future consequences such as loss of self esteem and stress.

Transition can be defined as a change from one phase to another. (H Fabian and Dunlop, 2002) Believe that these changes bring about new accelerated demands due to change of environment, time, space, education concept and teaching styles. According to Fabian and Dunlop, 2005) transition can bring anxiety and excitement because of the anticipation of the new beginning. There is the anticipation of making new friends and meeting new people during reception. The idea of apprehension because of the unknown may determine the behavior of a kid in future.

Fabian and Dunlop consider summer born children as pupils with special needs; they therefore consider play as a special tool for transition. They stress that play is important for learning and reception. Finally, they advice on planning as the best way to prepare children for transition. Fabian and Dunlop consider emotional attachment of kids as a tool which influences the children’s well being. They advise on partnership between parents and the peers because this is the only way a summer born child can get a strong emotional attachment. They stress that teachers should play a greater role in assisting summer born children in transition from pre primary through to post primary. They suggest that when children are allowed discontinuity, learning becomes easier. It is therefore important that parents should give children support in order to instill confidence and a smooth transition.

(Curtis 1986; Cleave & Brown 1991; Dowling 1995; Kienig 1999) both argue that ensuring that children get smooth transition is significant to their emotional well being. Transition also involves integration of different communities. It is there fore important tool for inclusion.

Dunlop (2002) says that curriculum of elementary education, the educational philosophy and teaching styles often varies from nursery experience. This usually brings new anxiety accompanied by stress and new challenges. Children can find it difficult to cope with these new changes. He argues that the gap between the education in elementary education and nursery education.

During transition, children tend to be eager to learn from the community.Bayley and Featherstone argue that transition for the children should be proactive and effective if the society expects children to benefit and have a smooth transition. The best way to achieve this they say is by discussion, activities they are assigned and the experience they gain from their seniors.

Brooker (2002) a kid is considered as a child in the family but regarded as a pupil in school. He says that these children usually play differently at home compared to when they enter school which brings emotional difficulties because of the changes in the environment and the general set up. He stresses on the need of strengthening connections between different groups of kids such as the summer born and their peers.

Kienig (2002) Change of institutional culture, environment and pedagogical issues has an impact on a child’s behavior and relationship to others. Transition means learning new rules, new educational culture and new people.Therefore, different expectations are placed on them.

According to Blatchford, Battle & Mays, 1982 transition from home to pre school brings with it new experience and anxiety.Initially,children lack the necessary information and the culture of the new environment which prompt them to be eager to interact with their peers. They advise that parents should constantly help them during the process of learning.

Fabian (2002) suggest that parents and teachers should collaborate in supporting children during transition from home to Pre School. If this is done in early years they will not encounter many hurdles when they progress to higher level learning. Children’s capacity to concentrate, the ability to sit for long hours and the use of their own initiatives is important.

Dunlop (2001) argues that children react differently to changes in environment. He challenges parents to always ask children because this will ensure that they have developed their own ideas. Children may feel embarrassed because they lack knowledge but making them feel recognized will instill confidence in them.

Margetts (2000) says that transition should happen when children are familiar to the environment and ready to adapt. Teachers should have information about the children’s past performance.

(Galton, Gray and Ruddock1999) talk about pedagogical issues during transition to reception. They look at the challenges young children face during transition to reception. Reception to stage one, from infant to maturity can either stagnate or regress. Great changes appear when the kid is transferred from kindergarten to stage one but the difference is more pronounced between summer born and other older groups. They argue that friendly transition can only be possible if the teachers introduce a friendly curriculum. For these kids to have a smooth transition there should be induction programs where they get motivation and the feeling of self worth. Long summer breaks also affect the kids especially the summer borns.Also the mode of examination setting affect the children’s performance.

Kant also explains that transition to reception from infant, pre primary to university is important to kids. He also stresses that during this stage, children are normally emotionally attached to the immediate environment. He advises that parents and teachers should motivate these kids.

Summer-born children are children whose birth occurred during the month of August and they have been found to perform poorly as compared to their peers in all stages of education. This is according to the findings of the research that has been conducted. The academic year which starts from September ending in March give a disadvantage to children born in August who are supposed to sit for their exams one year earlier as compared to the children who were born earlier. The impact of the birth date of a child affects significantly the cognitive outcomes of the child with a “birth penalty” being on the higher side at the time of entering school (Polly, 2009).

This trend tends to a decline with time although the effect is still significant when the child is at the age of 16 to 18. This is the time that the child is supposed to make a decision about their future study as well as employment.

The summer-born children have a slim chance of attaining A*-C GCSE grades which is the requirement for college entrance. Findings indicate that the summer-born children may remain in school past the age of 16 as compared to their peers who were born in September.

For a substantial period of time, there has been an indication of the birth date effects on the qualifications of children in schools. Findings from research have a strong indication that, there is a high profile of disadvantage that summer born children are exposed to. These serious issues have in the past been brought to the attention of the public but the relevant agencies concerned with education as well as training policy have always neglected them (Alison & Ayre, 2005).

Sufficient evidence supports the fact that birth date effects are persistent in the entire period of education as well as training of the child. The summer born children also fail to progress in specific routes and to some education levels. A few number of the summer born children are able to succeed through all levels of education.

There are many theories which try to explain that summer born children are disadvantaged compared to children born before or after this time. Take the case of Vygotsky. He argues that these children tend to copy or seek assistance from the peers and other older children. He further states that teachers often put more emphasis on these children because at this stage these children tend to each other more than they concentrate on the lessons. For instance, if a summer born child finds that his peers are older than him or her, he or she tends to loss self esteem because he or she finds it unfit to associate with because they are more mature (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

Warwick Mansell and Graeme Paton also explained about the challenges these children pass through. To begin with, they said that these children are more likely to commit suicide after repeating classes and left behind by their classmates. They further said that it is hard for them to be professional athletes (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

According to the study done by exam board Cambridge assessment, summer children are not disadvantaged in countries like Finland and Denmark. This is because in Denmark they begin schooling at the age of six while in Finland they start school at the age of seven. They suggested that England should follow suit in order to reduce the chances of these children being disadvantaged. In this study more than three quarter of the children sampled showed that children born in summer in these countries had the same performance with their older counterparts. It further showed that these children are less likely to score good grades in core subjects such as English sciences and Mathematics. It also cited that summer born children have poor school attendance as compared to their peers. It also showed that majority of these children never proceed to university. This is because these children grasp very little in the course of their studies which leave them lagging behind and in the end they lack the required grade to proceed to university level (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

A study conducted by the institute of education and the institute for fiscal studies in London showed that children born in summer struggle in school, both in reading and writing. It also showed that even at the age of sixteen the gap in terms of performance in class will not narrow down with their counterparts and at this stage they are more likely to drop out of school.

Another study conducted by Glasgow city council, (2001) every child should start classes at or after the age of six. It also suggested that boys should start school a year later to prevent them from being locked out of learning for life. It identified Wales and England as countries where children are supposed to start learning when they turn five years. This implies that a child born on Thirty first august will start school on first September while those born on first September will start school one year after the one born in august has resumed. This is an obvious disadvantage to children born in summer.

Parents argue that children born in summer should be delayed for one year. For example, in Scotland children normally start school at the end of February. This is considered a cut off period for them. If the birthday of some children fall between the beginning of march and the middle of august, when the term begins, the parents must ensure their children resume school. But children born between august and in the middle of December can defer but are not allowed to resume nursery education. But the children whose birthdays lie between December and February can defer and also be allowed to start nursery education. This indicates that children born in summer are disadvantaged since they cannot be allowed to defer and at the same time proceed to nursery when the period they deferred elapses. This means that they have to be delayed for a year as others are being taught. Though it’s true, some children consider going to school at an earlier age is stressful due to the fact that they struggle to cope with the environment and also interact with their older counterparts. Some say that starting school at a much older age, say seven years, makes them more relaxed and eager to learn and interact with others. It is evident from the way older students express themselves once faced with challenges (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

Also, some parents argue that girls mature earlier than boys. They therefore suggest that though they are born at the same time, boys should be delayed for one year for them to be mature enough to fit into their autumn born counterparts.

When analyzing the birthday effect, Tim Oats Cambridge assessment further revealed that children born in summer are strongly disadvantaged. In a study which involved the whole system of education, he found that though there are some exceptionally good children, most of them fail to attain the highest level of education. He realized that the birthday effect affect summer children in all levels of education. He stated categorically that strong selection of the kids should be done at all levels to reduce the chances of the summer children being disadvantaged. Among the recommendations he made is for the government to balance the curriculum so that elements such as cognitive, social and emotional developments are considered. He further proposed that pupils should be regrouped to consider the difference in special; needs. He also proposed that the curriculum should be adjusted in various stages of education system. He said that children should be regrouped such that the summer children are grouped together and the other children are grouped separately. Finally he stated that the earlier unites should be optional and once the child matures education should be made compulsory for him. Also he suggested that teachers should be able to manage the differences between children born in summer and the ones not born in summer (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

School drop out for children born in august is more pronounced in countries such as England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Data collected by the institute of fiscal studies from GCSE candidates showed that there is a constant depression of grades by the students born in August through September. Projections showed that by the end of university education, few summer students would have satisfied the examiners while majority would have dropped out of school.

Again, data collected from 13 LEAs which had analyzed GCSE results showed that children born in summer were the lowest attainers while the ones born in autumn were the highest attainers. When they included gender, they discovered that boys were more disadvantaged than girls since the boys tend to grow at a slow pace compared to girls. When the nine subjects that had been examined were analysed, boys were found to have scored one grade lower than girls in the overall results. This further shows that boys born in summer are more disadvantaged than the ones born in autumn. The study also showed that more than half of the summer born children did not pass in the key subjects i.e. mathematics, English and sciences. This study established that the cohort of children born during summer needs special need in terms of education. This is due to the fact that the percentage of children taking at least one subject in GCSE examination drop as the summer students take the A level examination (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

According to the higher education funding council if the children, both summer and a cohort of autumn taking English had the same chances of going to university, then the total number of students would increase by approximately 12000 students. Also, if the number of the students passing Mathematics increased then there would be even higher population joining the university.

During the earlier stages of development culture plays a big role in the growth of summer born children. First, it contributes much of their thinking. During this stage a child is keener in knowing what is happening around him, in the process the child adapts and behave exactly as the surrounding. Secondly, the people around the kid greatly influence his behavior. Much of what he does copies from those who are close to him. This implies that culture determines what the child think and how he thinks.

Vygotskians observes that initially the child learns from the one closer to him but as he grows up he starts assuming responsibilities. He further notes that the summer could be more disadvantaged if they lack good guidance from adults. Since child capabilities largely depend on how well the society relates to him, he therefore advices that in order for this kid to develop intellectually, he should not be treated in isolation. He again identified cognitive development whereby the child is able to learn various experiences involving problem solving. The child can learn from the parent, the teacher, any adult who usually interacts with him or his peers. This is an important stage in child development because it determines how well he can handle his future when faced with challenges (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

According to the national foundation for educational research, September children outperform those born in august throughout primary school. According to the research conducted in the united states of more than 7200 children in primary schools august born children are more disadvantages because they start going to school one year earlier than those born in winter and autumn. Children born in United States normally start school a year earlier than those in Britain. While in Britain the difference between summer born children and autumn born children disappear at the age of twelve but in United States this difference disappear at the age of eight.

Research done by Caroline Sharp and dougal Hutchinson looked at the test scores of pupils aged six, eight years, ten and twelve years. In this study they established that children born between may and august scored an average of six marks less as compared to those pupils born between September and December. At the age of ten the difference did not reduce but when they approach twelve, this difference narrows to insignificant. When the pupils join high school the environment changes. They form new friends; they meet new teachers which mean the expectations of both teachers and pupil’s changes.

Ms Sharp further argues that summer born children lag behind because they are the youngest in class. Their self esteem is affected because they consider themselves weak and less able than their older counterparts. She says that if everyone perceives them as weak then it sticks that they are less able. These pupils perform poorly because even their teachers have less expectation of them. She says that in United States children hold their summer born children for one year because they feel that they might be the youngest in their class. In a country where ministers encourage the setting of examination by ability in primary school where by no allowance is given to children at age five through seven, summer born children are obviously disadvantaged. She proposes that parents should hold their children enough to make the feel at par with the autumn born pupils. The teachers should encourage summer born children so that they can not feel alienated (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

A study by the schools analysis and research division shows that summer birthdays are frequently identified as children with special needs. These children face various challenges which range from their speech, interaction, language and communication. The society in general belief that summer births are less productive as a result they are coupled with many challenges. They include loss of self esteem and stress. The study made the following observations.

Summer born children should start infant schooling one or two terms later than their peers.

Developmentally immature children struggle to understand the curriculum. Early stress and failure affect them and as a result of this they lose self esteem and expectations forcing them to struggle further.

When teachers are setting assessment tests they do not consider the needs of these pupils. This hampers the performance in their profession. It therefore proposed that teachers and parents should closely monitor and guide summer born for them to perform as other kids.

The study also identified mislabeling as one of the things that could make summer born children increase the chances of developing secondary problems such as emotional problems, behavioral difficulties, low self esteem and poor performance in academics.

The study came up with policy options of tackling effects brought by the month of birth.

The first one is to monitor the rate of referral when it comes to relative effect of age.

There should be intervention strategies before referral options are considers. Such strategy will ensure that needs of every kid are considered and proper measures are taken to prevent future problems.

The teachers should use standardized assessments because this is the only way of identifying kids with special needs. It cautions teachers against relying on referrals.

It further proposed that awareness should be increased on teachers concerning the needs of kids born in different months.

The curriculum and expectations should be personalized in order to cater for all the needs of every group.

The study showed that kids have different special needs in different stages. When the children are at age one the needs are different compared to children at age five. That is why teachers are advised in this study to closely monitor the kids, identify their needs in order to know how to treat each case.

According to Sir Jim Rose, summer born children should not defer starting when starting primary school. Parents, teachers and ministers argued that if children are allowed to start school too young they might develop psychological and social problems. This research indicated that the age gap between four years and five years had a significant difference in the way they respond to the societal changes.

The report children born in summer in England should start primary school in the month of September after their fourth birthday. According to him about three quarter of local authorities follow this trend. He argued that generally summer born children who begin primary school late benefit more from elementary education compared to children who are born in summer but started school early. He proposed that children starting school earlier should study part time, fifteen hours per week. His suggestion required that parents must consider education premium for summer born children. But he feared that parents would develop a lot of concern because the curriculum is not standardized which will require policy changes to suit this idea (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

In a research done to establish whether children who postpone their kindergarten education, perform better than those who do not postpone, it was found that it is indeed important to delay the pupils so that they can develop mentally. According to Griffith, Morrison and Albert children who join classes earlier score slightly lower marks in tests than their older counterparts. This is because at that age, the youngest children see the age as a barrier which deter them from performing as the older ones.

This research involved children born in June, July august and September. It involved those who the children who started kindergarten at age five and those who postponed their classes up to age six. The ones who delayed were matched with those who did not delay, also, boys who did not delay were matched with boys who delayed the same was done for girls. They entered a standardized test and the result was used to compare the performance between summer born children who delayed for one year and those who joined kindergarten without delaying. The result showed that those kids who delayed performed better than those who did not delay. When they considered performance between boys and girls in mathematics did not show great difference.

Meisels also discovered that rich families hold their children for a year before they join kindergarten unlike the poor families. This implies that children from poor families are disadvantaged compared to those from the rich families. At the end of the day children from the affluent families perform better academically. Because the children below the age of six use the curriculum which does not meet the demands of every kid, he suggested that these kids be treated differently; at this age they are not mentally fit to tackle the challenges the older ones can tackle (Beckett, & De Reybekill, 2008).

Cambridge assessment review of the year 2009 children born in September, October and November perform generally better than the summer born children. This child is likely to tackle the emotional, psychological and physical challenges which he is likely to encounter. This gives them advantage in educational matters. This phenomenon usually extends up to tertiary levels of education. One might be influenced by the birth effect to determine his career.

The institute of fiscal studies also discovered that the dropout children at age twelve is a third of all the summer born children and at the end of A level the drop out level reduces to nine percent. Also when they looked at gender, they realized that the drop out rate for summer born boys is higher compared to girls. Parents believe that this effect is finally eliminated but the research found that it is a persistent effect.

Dhuey and Bedard found that the birth effect persists to maturity. They argue that maturity and ability are different contrary to a common belief by teachers. He says that someone must mature first in order to perform and that people have different abilities.

In his book Malcolm Gladwell the difference in maturity during early years persists. He further suggests if a parent wants his kid to succeed he must provide proper parenting. He says that in America there is a difference between going to college and not going. Birthday effect contributes greatly on the pupils who don’t complete school (Sandra, Edwin & Taylor, 2000).

Parents, for instance in United States tend to hold their children until they attain age ten to twelve. This is aimed at solving the problem of birth date effect. But this he argues that it might bring complications later because the kid may often see himself odd in a class of only younger children than him.

Generally, each individual has his or her own ability, but it is good for parents not to add more problems to others especially for august birthday kids.

Research methodologyIntroduction

This section spells out the procedures and methods that the researcher employed in achieving the objectives of the project so highlighted in the abstract of this paper. It defines the location of the study, research procedures and analysis plan that were addressed in the course of the study consideration when carrying out this particular research. The research was supposed to start with the clear understanding of the research objectives as well as the hypothesis. Success of the project was a factor of the provision of satisfying information in line with the objectives and hypothesis in the determination of transition to reception programs for late birthday children (Alison & Ayre, 2005).

The objective of the research just as a recap is to identify the effective transition to reception programs for late birthday children. It is important to note here that this research was mainly based on the interviews even though other resea

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