Transport and Tourism
Transport and tourism Relation ………………………………………………..3
Tourism arrangement model (Leiper, 1979)…………………………………….4
Elements of transport supplies…………………………………………………..6
Supply of transport in TGR, TRR and TDR…………………………………7
Substantial Components of the supply of transport system…………………8-9
Suppliers of tourist transport across the tourism system…………………….9
Factors that influences the supply of transport………………………………10
Demand for tourist travel and a trend in travel demand…………………………10
Demand for travel……………………………………………………………
Who create Demand for tourism transport………………………….………..
Demand of transport characteristics……………………………………………
What affects the demand of transport…………………………………………
Effects of transport expansion and innovation on global tourism trends………12
Travel and Tourism are normally used interchangeably in normal conversations though the two do not mean one thing. Even though the transport industry gives the link that is amid dwelling and
destination regions of tourists, but the industry’s role as an agent responsible for making tourists reach these destinations has been considered as tourism. Suppose the capability of tourists to journey to favored destinations is withdrawn by the inefficiencies in transport system, there is some probability that the tourists will look for some other destinations. In this case, the task of transport in tourism will have been achieved not. Travel performs very essential role in tourism industry.1
The connection amid tourism and transport has been the debate topic in industry that is concerned with tourism, as the roles are interchangeable as some think, but the difference is quite distinct. The paper has focused chiefly on the transport being a way for achievement of the desire of tourists. Differences amid tourism and travel have been outlined. It brings out clearly the importance of all aspect of tourism and transport. 2
The tourism system model by Leiper 1979 is used in the explanation of these. It explores deeply on the factors that hinder transport on various conditions as well the factors that the affects its supply. It does not leave out the demand of transport and the matters that affect it.
2) Transport and tourism Relation
Travel and Transportation may be argued without considering tourism; however, the converse cannot happen as tourism can’t prosper devoid of travel and transportation. Transportation takes central position in tourism industry. Tourism wholly depends on transport but reverse at times might not be true. 3
1and 3 from Atoll, S. (2009). Transport & Tourism: Global Perspectives.Publisher Trans-Atlantic
2 From Otego, D. (2008). Tourism and transport, Toot publishers
It is mainly because of the development of transportation system that has resulted to an major expansion in tourism Industry.
The impacts of Transportation on the whole tourism system, has beckoned for an improved resource management. Good transportation enhances tourism for example, in biodiversity-rich places, starting of sensitive and inaccessible places by means of improved transport system and service can be disadvantageous to place’s ecology. Regarding such issues, it is vital to reflect the responsibility of transportation in such places. The relationship amid tourism and transport is quite evident. It is identified by Otego 1996 that transport can be regarded as one of three basic tourism’s components, extra two being, tourism market (demand) and product of tourism (supply). Tourism competitiveness depends on the transport system competitiveness and services of travel. In real sense, the connection amid tourism and transport is asymmetrical. Transport is the catalyst factor of which tourism can’t survive. The overturn can be two since travel can thrive without tourism. Transport and travel can hence be regarded as being in tourism but tourism cannot be in transport. It is an essential part of tourism. 4
Tourism structure model (Leiper, 1979)
Tourism happens only suppose people journey from their dwellings to the favored target to take the pleasure in the gorgeous sceneries or to pursue their personal interests. If not so, tourism can be taken as visit and the tourists not as visitors. A good example is when an individual who pays visit to the Tokyo cannot be taken as tourist suppose he lives and works in the same city. A tourist has therefore to depart from her/his dwelling place for a given destination through transport. 5
4 From; Les, L. (2004). Tourism and transport: issues and agenda for the new millennium.Publisher Elsevier.
5 from Chawla, R. (2000) Transport and Tourism, Somali Publications
The movement from his/her dwelling to the destination plays a significant function in realization of his/her desire of travel. Moreover, whilst roaming, a tourist will use the tourism’ product. The movement enhances the improvement of the design and quality of the product of tourist as well as the transport system. As mentioned earlier, movement is extremely vital in this achievement. Furthermore, it’s essential to give an organization outline for the studying tourism. In order for this to happen, we have to adopt model of Leiper’s. In the model, three tourism features are pointed out. The aspects brought out are; geographical elements, sectors of tourism and tourists.6
The model of Leiper has outlined 3 geographical elements:
Travelers-generating region (TGR)
Transit route region (TRR)
Tourist destination region (TDR)
6 From; Buda, D. (2001). Transport and leisure: report of the hundred and eleventh round table on transport economics. Saga sag Publishers
4.1) Supply of transport in TGR, TRR and TDR
Travelers-generating region (TGR)
Traveler-generating region (TGR) is the origin of the tourists. It is often referred as home region. Traveler-generating region is the generating market that encourages and boosts traveling.
Transit route region (TRR)
Transit route region (TRR) entails equally the short travel duration from their respective dwelling places to the destination plus extra venues on their way which may cause them (tourists) to make a short pause and pay a visit to the area. They might come to the areas coincidentally without planning to visit such areas. 7
Tourist destination region (TDR)
Tourist destination (TDR) is one among the significant elements in the entire tourism system. It stresses that which can be done by the suppliers for travelers. In fact, this not only comprises the bodily equipments that are vital for tourists’ attraction, but as well for the service that are useful in enhancement of the images and motivation of the tourism.
Tourist destinations perform like something that ‘pulls’ in the market and offer a region intended for the majority of the activities of tourism. Tourist destination region (TDR) draws various types of tourists with different products of tourism that are desirable and excellence of organization and service. It is the place at which the tourists can recognize their momentary objectives of journey. Tourist destination region (TDR) provides the tourists with ‘pull’ of a variety of kinds and generates a platform on which management and planning policies can be done. According to these we can say that, Tourist destination region (TDR) is the tourism’s heart. 8
7 From; Atoll, S. (2009). Transport & Tourism: Global Perspectives.Publisher Trans-Atlantic
8 From; Buda, D. (2001). Transport and leisure: report of the hundred and eleventh round table on
transport economics. Saga sag Publishers
The spatial movement that is from TGR through the TRR and finally to the Tourist destination region (TDR) is a very important and necessary section of the experience of tourism. Tourists have to consider numerous factors before they travel. Their intentions of travel differs as some go for pleasure, for their health improvement like when their countries are too cold they travel to others for warmth. Some do so for the gain in the business field while majority do so for enjoyment and recreational activities. And this makes specific qualities that have to be taken into consideration on rating of the travelers as tourists. They are either the people who are coming for the establishment a residence in a given country or state, visit shortly, or the students who ought to travel to the other parts to tour are also regarded as tourists. 9
The industry of tourism refers to organizations as well as businesses which aid in the promotion of the products of tourism. In the model of Leiper, different manufacturing sectors may be situated in various places. In TGR, tour operators and travel agents can be found. In the TDR, hospitality industry and attractions can be found and in TRR, the transport sector is found.
Elements of transport supply for tourists
Tourism system is composed of three elements:
b) Destination and
c) Tourism intermediaries.
Amongst them, the most vital is the tourist. Tourist is the tourism commencing point and it provides momentum for the tourism development. The destination performs as the object of the tourism. 10
9 From; Les, L. (2004). Tourism and transport: issues and agenda for the new millennium.Publisher Elsevier
10 from Chawla, R. (2000) Transport and Tourism, Somali Publications
It’s the region in which a variety of types of product of tourism are given out, eg lodgings, hotels, leisure amenities and other additional services. Tourism mediators aid in the connection of the TGR and the destinations of the tourists. It is comprised chiefly of the agents of travel and the transport, operators of the trip, and any other responsible body that assists tourists to apprehend their desire of travel and get experience in tourism. The main industry of tourism is made up of travel, transport, trade, lodging, and catering and also facilities of catering and tourist attractions among other more. For various segments or organizations to outfit all plans and tastes offer these services and products. The generosity industries grant entertainments and lodging for tourist. 11
The public should be aware that the system of tourism cannot be a self-sufficient system. The development of tourism system relies on assistance of environmental or exterior systems, like economic, socio-cultural, bodily, and political among others. The systems are mutually supporting one another. For instance, with no agriculture, nobody can deliver food for hotels; with no industry of oil, no vehicle will have ability to move and assist travelers. Tourism system, too, is as well significant to the growth of new organizations.
4.2) Basic Substantial Components of the supply of transport system
Our systems requires good infrastructure so that it can attain the goals of provision of the principal requirements of the public and tourists and granting facilities of support for an effective system. It is better infrastructure that boosts tourist. Proper plans and policies are to be that aid in the development of infrastructure has to be designed. It is by good infrastructure that transport is as well enhanced. Better infrastructure better transport and vice verse. 12
11 Gui, L. (2009). TRANSPORT AND TOURISM: Developing Gateways as Tourist Destinations. Publisher LAP Lambert
12 Les, L. (2004) Tourism and transport: issues and agenda for the new millennium.Publisher Elsevier
There are several methods, plans and policies that should be put in place to ensure that such happens. There should be speedy integration and expansion of facilities of network. This is should be across urban and rural areas. When the broad are developed in a good way there will be ease in the travel and quick access to the parks and remote areas and this will promote tourism. This will increase the operation rate and better services offered to the tourists. 13
The vehicles that assist the tourist and travel within the parks and tourist centers should be of good condition. The vehicles that are outdated and are in poor conditions end up polluting the environment in the parks and the surroundings. They can be considered as the main cause of accidents as well. There are many ways of transport like, through the cars, rail, and even through the airplanes. However, air transport has been the major mode transport that is used by the international tourists. It plays a leading responsibility in inter-regional travels of tourists, which usually involves traveling over geographically distant places. Rates of Growth of global air travel are attached with the rates of expansion of global tourism.
All the operations at the park should be geared in tourism promotion. There should be good communications and better services to the tourists. This will boast the tourism industry. 14
4.3) Suppliers of tourist transport across the tourism system
The question about who the suppliers of tourist transport across the system of tourism are can be answered regarding the type of area to be toured15.
13 Atoll, S. (2009). Transport & Tourism: Global Perspectives. Publisher Trans-Atlantic. 14 Buda, D. (2001). Transport and leisure: report of the hundred and eleventh round table on transport economics. Saga sag Publishers 15 Duval, D. (2007).Tourism and transport: modes, networks and flows. Publisher Channel View Publications.
It is the regional personnel that provide the tourist transport across the tourism system. They are the people concerned with the tourism and their satisfactions. They are the people who also offer services to the tourism industry. When the park or area to be toured belongs to the government or any other organization, then it is the organization that provides.
Factors that influences the supply of transport
There are numerous factors that have either indirect or direct effect on the supply of tourism. The factors that mostly affect the supply of transport are overall factors. These are environmental factors that the transport sectors have very minimal control over. They are natural and Technological factors such as; floods, change in climate, earth slides, and natural disasters. These factors differ from one area to the other and also on the climate condition or the area. A change in climate and its changes threatens the sustainability of countless activities of tourism, this extends as far as affecting transportation, particularly in rising countries, thus worsen transport within the affected areas and countries. The sector of transport is by now vigorously concerned with making necessary efforts, to reinforce adaptation measures. Variance in climate is by now affecting the sector of tourism, in particular the climate-sensitive destinations. Taking a study on islands, in minute island emerging states, that mostly depends on revenue of tourism for socio-economic growth, any little decrease in tourism considerably impacts levels of poverty. Increased heat frequency to extremes can make beaches in various areas to be unfavorable to tourists. Demand too affects the supply. An increase in the number of tourists will increase the demand for transport. This further depends ion the weather conditions. 16
The demand for tourist travel and trends in travel demand
)What demand for travel is about
The demand for transport is about the number that wants to travel to a specific area at a given time. The demand for transport depends on factors like the availability of transport systems and means. It also depends on the site to be toured.
16 from Atoll, S. (2009). Transport & Tourism: Global Perspectives. Publisher Trans-Atlantic and Otego, D. (2008). Tourism and transport, Toot publishers
There are some places that have higher demand than the others.
The number traveling as well changes depending on time and the intentions of tourists. If the number that wants to travel is low, then we can say that the demand is also low. These people travel form their dwelling places to the tourist’s sites. 17
) Who create Demand for tourism transport?
The creation of demand for transport is by Tourists. They provide the necessity to travel. Demand is only created when one wants to move from one area to the other and hence local residents cannot create it.
) Demand of transport characteristics
Demand of transport can be elastic and at times can be inelastic or constant. This is dependent on numerous factors and conditions. Tourism is characterized by high elasticity level. As costs of transport are important for global transport, demand is influenced powerfully by the fluctuations of cost and other cost related factors. For that reason, transport can be viewed as the key factor in the industry of tourism. The demand in worldwide and as well as public transport infrastructures means a great figure of people desire to travel in a fast, competent and in an economical manner. 18
The demand becomes elastic if and only if the desire for it is dependent on other factors like price and the likes. It is inelastic if it is inflexible and dependent.
) What affects the demand of transport?
The demand for transport is affected by the cost and the environmental factors. The demand also depends on the number of customers who want to travel to given destination at a given time.
17 From; Les, L. (2004). Tourism and transport: issues and agenda for the new millennium.Publisher Elsevier
18 from Chawla, R. (2000) Transport and Tourism, Somali Publications
It the number is Koki National park in Kenya from Canada is 20000 and those who want to travel to Kenyatta are 1000, then we can say that the demand for Kenyatta is higher as compared to Koki.
There comes a time that the number of tourist increase and at time the number to travel drops. This depends on the environmental factors from their respective dwelling places.
We find that when it is winter in the northern hemisphere, it becomes cold and the tourist travel to the southern hemisphere to sun bath. National factor may have influence but always they are very minimal and at times negligible. Factors like war and political instability rarely causes the tourists to migrate their countries. 19
6) Effects of transport expansion and innovation on global tourism trends
Expansion in transport sector and innovation on global tourism trends has led to the growth of tourism and improvements of the infrastructures. Tourists have the tendency of touring the areas that have better infrastructure and good services. Some of the effects are faster access to the destinations and better services. 20
Transport is the cause and the effect of the growth of tourism. To commence with, the enhanced travel amenities have enthused tourism, and the growth of tourism has inspired transport. The ease of accessing these services (tourism) is the main purpose behind the fundamentals of tourism transport. Though the two are affected by numerous external factors but their improvements are vital for both industries. For assessing the tourism areas the intended, travelers will apply any mode of transportation as long as the destination is reached and hence their satisfaction. All the sectors should work with one accord to promote tourism and travel.
19 and 20 From Atoll, S. (2009). Transport & Tourism: Global Perspectives.Publisher Trans-Atlantic
Atoll, S. (2009). Transport & Tourism: Global Perspectives.Publisher Trans-Atlantic.
Buda, D. (2001). Transport and leisure: report of the hundred and eleventh round table on
transport economics. Saga sag Publishers
Chawla, R. (2000). Transport and Tourism. Somali Publications.
Duval, D. (2007).Tourism and transport: modes, networks and flows.Publisher Channel View Publications.
European Union, (2009). Transport and tourism: practical guide. EUR-OP, 2009Publishers.
Gui, L. (2009). TRANSPORT AND TOURISM: Developing Gateways as Tourist Destinations.
Publisher LAP Lambert
Les, L. (2004). Tourism and transport: issues and agenda for the new millennium.Publisher Elsevier.
Otego, D. (2008). Tourism and transport, Toot publishers.