Twentieth Century Design
Date:Introduction to design
Q1: Industrial revolution is intertwined with industrial production in series along with mass production of daily consumables furniture made in large quantities. This was followed by new distribution techniques and advertising which increased the turnovers. The revolution took place in early 1800s to 1850s in Europe and America. Industrialization catalyzed the design profession due to demand for social engagement, skilled crafts and taste preferences among the general population. The designer came in to rid of poor quality and cheap industrial products for better and quality skilled craft production.
Q2: Series and mass production meant that items were produced in a logical manner and steps. The object of production was transformed through procedures, machines and methods in large quantities. Other factors like removal of customs and tariffs allowed for international trade.
Q3: “Form follows function” is regarded as the social and moral aspect of production that brings in the element of design aesthetics. Early theorists on functionalism and modernism regarded form as precedent of function. It later included ornamentation, standards, geometry language and simplicity for the goods to be of good quality and durability. Design was later treated not only as simplification of form but also improving on its quality, usability and fair pricing.
Q4: The focal points of a designer were given as a) object analysis and presentation which addresses perspective, geometry and proportion; b) technical aspect involved learning on the design physics, construction, quality standards, serialization and material science; c) ergonomics was involved in industrial design focusing in human relationship with its environment; d) design education brought about the issue of fair, safety and healthful working conditions; and e) education curriculum concentrates mainly on product planning, legal, economic, organizational and market oriented issues pertaining product marketing and development. It also involved design management, advertising, patents and competitive advantage.
Q5: The practical and technical function informed the 20th century production due to requirements on technical and functional dimensions. The aesthetic function had much to do with styling of product so as to place marketability on the product on the foreground so that it becomes attractive. The symbolic aspect predominant in German designs placed greater emphasis on workplace ergonomics and the practical suitability of the product.
Q5a): The first impression depicts a symbol of a palm stretched under a light to create a shadow. The various shades symbolize skin color of humans with leaves symbolizing co-existence of such diversity. The second picture is that of a Chinese shoe depicting an aesthetic function seen in it fancy and decorative style. The third picture is a record player portraying function and the technical aspect of design. The upper part has a lid that covers the rotating part of the player.
Q5b): Milton Glaser is an American graphics designer with a distinction of having one-man shows at Georges Pompidou center and Museum of modern Art. He has an award of Cooper Hewitt National design and also a Fulbright scholar. He articulates the ethical practice of design.
Dieter Rams is a German designer famous for his ten principles of good design. He pointed out that true design elevate human life higher but not only in dressing things up. He coned “less but better.” He founded the record player in 1956.
Guo Pei is a Chinese fashion designer, who has originated several dresses which has elevated her to international haute-couture scale. She pioneered Tianma clothing company producing thousands of garments.
a) Milton Glaser “ We are all African” 2008
b) Guo Pei: red shoes Homage to wizard of Oz shoes, 2011
Dieter Rams: SK4 record player, 1956
Hauffe, T. (1998). Introduction to design: A concise History. London: Lawrence King, pp 8-19.