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Types of Anemia

Types of Anemia

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Types of Anemia

Anemia results when there are insufficient erythrocytes in the body to supply oxygen to the organs. Insufficient number of red blood cells results in low levels of hemoglobin, a protein rich in iron and helps the cells transport oxygen. Anemia is declared when the levels fall below 13.5 gram/100 ml and 12.0 gram/100 ml in men and women respectively (Terrie, 2013). There are several types of anemia that occur either through loss of blood, destruction, or reduced red bold cell synthesis as discussed below.

Iron-deficiency anemia – This type occurs when there is insufficient synthesis of erythrocytes by the body. It is the most common type and childbearing women are prone to this condition.

Pernicious anemia or Vitamin B-12 anemia – Vitamin B-12 is vital in the production of red blood cells by the body, and the intestine’s inability to absorb this vitamin results in pernicious anemia. Consumption of vitamin B-12 deficient foods is also a contributing factor.

Aplastic anemia – The bone marrow synthesizes red blood cells, and its destruction causes insufficient production. Physical and chemical factors such as X-rays and chemotherapy are contributing factors to bone marrow destruction. Low levels of red blood cells and autoimmune diseases cause this type of anemia.

Sickle Cell anemia – A hereditary anemic condition where the erythrocytes assume a sickle shape. The deformed cells undergo degradation faster than the healthy cells leading to an insufficient number of erythrocytes in the body causing anemia.

Trauma related anemia – This type of anemia occurs when the body loses a substantial amount of blood following an injury or accident. Hence, the body cannot supply oxygen to the organs because a large number of red blood cells have been lost through bleeding (Terrie, 2013).

Type of Anemia Causes Symptoms Diagnostic Tests Treatment

Iron-deficiency anemia Heavy menstruation

Insufficient iron in the diet

Bleeding caused by cancer, hemorrhoids, or ulcers

Malabsorption of iron in the body

Dizziness, shortness of breath, fatigue, malaise, paleness, and loss of concentration. Babies may experience fussiness, slow growth and development, and a short attention span. A physical examination involving medical history, complete blood count test and iron test to check the level of red blood cells and iron respectively. Taking iron supplement pills

Pernicious anemia Diet deficient in Vitamin B-12

Malabsorption of Vitamin B-12 by the small intestines

Palpitations, fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest and leg pains, headache, diarrhea, weight loss, red and sore mouth and tongue Analysis of a blood sample to determine B12 levels and intrinsic factor antibodies.

Schilling test to determine absorption of B12 from the bowel Vitamin B12 injections

Aplastic anemia Bone marrow destruction caused by viral infections, toxic chemicals, X-rays, radiation and chemotherapy, pregnancy, and autoimmune disorders. Headache, pale skin, fatigue, dizziness, bleeding gums, nose bleeding, irregular heartbeat, skin rash, and prolonged bleeding Bone marrow biopsy. A small bone marrow sample is removed from a large bone and checked under a microscope to measure the level of blood cells.

Blood tests to determine the level of blood cells. Blood transfusion, observation and medication for mild cases, and bone marrow transplants for severe cases.

Sickle cell anemia Inheritance of two sickle cell genes from parents Swollen feet and hands, delayed growth, crises or severe pains, vision problems, jaundice, and multiple infections Simple blood test to check for hemoglobin S, which causes this type of anemia Medication to relieve pain and prevent infections; supplemental oxygen; blood transfusion, and bone marrow transplants

Trauma related anemia Serious loss of blood through accidents or severe injuries Abdominal pains, pale skin, extreme nausea, rapid breathing, fatigue, malaise, severe dizziness, and chest pains. Blood tests and observation Control of bleeding, blood transfusion, and iron supplements.

Sickle cell anemia is the most difficult to treat. This is because patients require consecutive treatment to relieve pain and prevent infection. In case of transplantation, they rarely find suitable stem-cell donors (Terrie, 2013).

Reference

Terrie, Y. C. (2013). Understanding Anemia: Types, Symptoms and Treatment. US News. Retrieved on 14 Oct. 2013 from http://health.usnews.com/health-news/health-wellness/articles/2013/04/13/understanding-anemia-types-symptoms-and-treatment

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Types of Anemia

Name

Institution

Types of Anemia

Anemia results when there are insufficient erythrocytes in the body to supply oxygen to the organs. Insufficient number of red blood cells results in low levels of hemoglobin, a protein rich in iron and helps the cells transport oxygen. Anemia is declared when the levels fall below 13.5 gram/100 ml and 12.0 gram/100 ml in men and women respectively (Terrie, 2013). There are several types of anemia that occur either through loss of blood, destruction, or reduced red bold cell synthesis as discussed below.

Iron-deficiency anemia – This type occurs when there is insufficient synthesis of erythrocytes by the body. It is the most common type and childbearing women are prone to this condition.

Pernicious anemia or Vitamin B-12 anemia – Vitamin B-12 is vital in the production of red blood cells by the body, and the intestine’s inability to absorb this vitamin results in pernicious anemia. Consumption of vitamin B-12 deficient foods is also a contributing factor.

Aplastic anemia – The bone marrow synthesizes red blood cells, and its destruction causes insufficient production. Physical and chemical factors such as X-rays and chemotherapy are contributing factors to bone marrow destruction. Low levels of red blood cells and autoimmune diseases cause this type of anemia.

Sickle Cell anemia – A hereditary anemic condition where the erythrocytes assume a sickle shape. The deformed cells undergo degradation faster than the healthy cells leading to an insufficient number of erythrocytes in the body causing anemia.

Trauma related anemia – This type of anemia occurs when the body loses a substantial amount of blood following an injury or accident. Hence, the body cannot supply oxygen to the organs because a large number of red blood cells have been lost through bleeding (Terrie, 2013).

Type of Anemia Causes Symptoms Diagnostic Tests Treatment

Iron-deficiency anemia Heavy menstruation

Insufficient iron in the diet

Bleeding caused by cancer, hemorrhoids, or ulcers

Malabsorption of iron in the body

Dizziness, shortness of breath, fatigue, malaise, paleness, and loss of concentration. Babies may experience fussiness, slow growth and development, and a short attention span. A physical examination involving medical history, complete blood count test and iron test to check the level of red blood cells and iron respectively. Taking iron supplement pills

Pernicious anemia Diet deficient in Vitamin B-12

Malabsorption of Vitamin B-12 by the small intestines

Palpitations, fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest and leg pains, headache, diarrhea, weight loss, red and sore mouth and tongue Analysis of a blood sample to determine B12 levels and intrinsic factor antibodies.

Schilling test to determine absorption of B12 from the bowel Vitamin B12 injections

Aplastic anemia Bone marrow destruction caused by viral infections, toxic chemicals, X-rays, radiation and chemotherapy, pregnancy, and autoimmune disorders. Headache, pale skin, fatigue, dizziness, bleeding gums, nose bleeding, irregular heartbeat, skin rash, and prolonged bleeding Bone marrow biopsy. A small bone marrow sample is removed from a large bone and checked under a microscope to measure the level of blood cells.

Blood tests to determine the level of blood cells. Blood transfusion, observation and medication for mild cases, and bone marrow transplants for severe cases.

Sickle cell anemia Inheritance of two sickle cell genes from parents Swollen feet and hands, delayed growth, crises or severe pains, vision problems, jaundice, and multiple infections Simple blood test to check for hemoglobin S, which causes this type of anemia Medication to relieve pain and prevent infections; supplemental oxygen; blood transfusion, and bone marrow transplants

Trauma related anemia Serious loss of blood through accidents or severe injuries Abdominal pains, pale skin, extreme nausea, rapid breathing, fatigue, malaise, severe dizziness, and chest pains. Blood tests and observation Control of bleeding, blood transfusion, and iron supplements.

Sickle cell anemia is the most difficult to treat. This is because patients require consecutive treatment to relieve pain and prevent infection. In case of transplantation, they rarely find suitable stem-cell donors (Terrie, 2013).

Reference

Terrie, Y. C. (2013). Understanding Anemia: Types, Symptoms and Treatment. US News. Retrieved on 14 Oct. 2013 from http://health.usnews.com/health-news/health-wellness/articles/2013/04/13/understanding-anemia-types-symptoms-and-treatment

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