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u05d2 Limits on Effective Planning (1 page)

I need the following discussion question answered for me. Each question need to be answered individually with its on references.

1. u05d2 Limits on Effective Planning (1 page)

Discuss the impact on major recent disasters, either manmade or natural. Your analysis should consider the factors related to the emergency management organization (local, state, and federal) and the population as a whole.

Recent times have seen quite a considerable number of calamities. These range from fires, hurricanes, floods and other manmade calamities such as leakage sin nuclear facilities, terrorism etc. These disasters have definitely had their impacts on the lives of individuals.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is charged with the responsibility of reducing loss of property and lives while protecting the country from every type of hazards by leading as well as supporting the state in risk-based, all-inclusive system of response, preparedness, protection, recovery and alleviation.

The major impacts of recent disasters include-

Economic effects- hurricane Katrina that struck New Orleans in 2005 led to infrastructural losses of more than $100 billion. Interruption of exports and supplies is definitely unquantifiable not to mention that over half-a-million people supported by the region had no job to look forward to.

Social effects- natural disasters leave many people unable to access their jobs and homes. People are separated from their relatives thereby inflicting physical as well as emotional distress on the victims.

Political effects- in many cases when disasters happen, they catch the responsible agencies unprepared. It is therefore understandable when the blame-game and political disputes arise as to the way the disasters are handled.

Are there positive or negative forcing that limit effective planning?

Effective planning for disaster management is affected by varied factors including-

Lack of a unified response- while there are various agencies and bodies involved in thes efforts a coordinated response is in most cases difficult to attain. With every agency or body undertaking its own measures in isolation, it would be difficult to plan on how to respond to a particular disaster.

Lack of resources- personnel key equipments, facilities and supplies necessary for the prevention, mitigation of disasters are not always sufficient. It therefore becomes difficult to plan with the uncertainty as to the available resources.

References

Quarantelli, E. (2000). HYPERLINK “Javascript:loadPopupWithParm(‘http://dspace.udel.edu:8080/dspace/handle/19716/673′,’700′,’450’);” Disaster planning, emergency management and civil protection: The historical development of organized efforts to plan for and to respond to disasters. Retrieved from the Disaster Research Center at University of Delaware HYPERLINK “http://dspace.udel.edu:8080/dspace/handle/19716/673” http://dspace.udel.edu:8080/dspace/handle/19716/673

Pawlowski, M. (2007). Catastrophic disaster planning. Retrieved from Emergency Management Institute HYPERLINK “http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/docs/Pawlowski%20-%20Catastrophic%20Disaster%20Planning.ppt” http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/docs/Pawlowski%20-%20Catastrophic%20Disaster%20Planning.ppt

2. u05d1 The Los Angeles Riots Case Study (1 ½ pages)

Analyze at least three major resource management errors in the preparedness, response, and recovery stages of the Los Angeles riots. Begin with the NIMS definition of resources and the MACS model of resource management in the NRF. Compare and contrast positive and negative effects of interagency rivalries and cultural misunderstandings in the case study. What elements in the MACS model could have reduced or eliminated the resource management issues in the case study?

The Los Angeles riots, also known as Rodney King riots were triggered by the verdict delivered on 4 LAPD officers by 12 Jurors in California. The four police officers had been accused of beating Rodney King for over-speeding. Even before the case went to trial, it had received tremendous media coverage since a caption of the beating that King had received hit the airwaves. With such evidence, it seemed impossible that the verdicts would be in favor of the police officers. Since the verdict was broadcast live, news about the acquittal spread quickly and by afternoon of the same day, the riots had began. These riots continued for the better part of the week with tension rising high. More than fifty deaths were reported and tremendous looting done.

These riots exposed three major resource management errors as far as preparedness, response and recovery from the riots is concerned. Resources in this case refer to personnel, equipments, facilities and supplies available to be assigned in incident operations. These are maintained and released by the supervisory personnel.

Inadequate personnel- 30 minutes after the verdict was read, over three-hundred people gathered at LA County Courthouse in protest. One hour later, about 200 officers under LAPD confronted the crowd but were outnumbered and therefore had to retreat. So overpowered were the police that the rioters had the temerity to appear at the LAPD’s headquarters and other places such as Florence and start looting as well as attacking people and vehicles.

Lack of proper strategy for response- there is an incident where a white driver who had stopped at the South Normandie and Florence avenues intersection was dragged out of his truck and beaten severely. While this incident was being broadcast live by news helicopters that were hovering above, the police did not show up since they had been directed to retreat. While the retreat may have been for their safety, it is notable that the white driver was rescued by a civilian who drove him in his own truck.

After the violence, many people in Los Angeles bought weapons. Although this was thwarted during the rioting period, it definitely could mean worse casualties in the future.

Compare and contrast positive and negative effects of interagency rivalries and cultural misunderstandings in the case study.

As much as Los Angeles riots may have started due to the verdict, this was only a trigger. The riots were rooted on economic competition between Korean- Americans and African- Americans forced onto them by greater market forces. Economic desperation, racism and police brutality were the core issues here.

What elements in the MACS model could have reduced or eliminated the resource management issues in the case study?

Elements of the MACS model such as proper coordination of the resources (personnel) and prioritization of the situations that demand competing resources would have assisted in quelling the riots before they turned nasty. The elements include proper communication, personnel, protocol and procedures integrated in one system.

HYPERLINK “http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/1104/definitions.html” http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/1104/definitions.html

HYPERLINK “http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/FAQ.shtm” http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/FAQ.shtm

HYPERLINK “http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/la_riot.html” http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/la_riot.html

3. u05d1 Business Continuity Plan Testing and Auditing (1 page)

Prepare a post in which you discuss the testing and auditing of a business continuity plan. Address the following questions in your post:

What is one example of how to test a business continuity plan?

The business world has always been the envy of many people. One thing that you may however acknowledge is that, the business world like any other facet of life is clouded with uncertainty. Emergencies can crop up at anytime in the life of the business. Of course this would disrupt business, but how likely are you to go remain steady in business? This is where you need to put in place some measures to ensure that the business continues even after the emergency. A business continuity plan outlines the strategies that the business would put in place to ensure that its normal operations are least affected in the least possible way by calamities such as floods, fires, hurricanes etc.

One way of testing a business continuity plan is simulating fake scenarios that would be likely to affect your business. When simulating, ensure that the employees follow every step of your business continuity plan just like the scenario was real. Their responses and the response time must be reflecting the plan. Ensure that the employees given particular responsibilities step into those roles and execute them. After this, you will need to gather the employees and look into areas that will require improvement, which ones worked effectively and what changes need to be made to ensure that the best plan is in place.

Assuming a testing and training plan is in place, why would an organization audit the business continuity plan?

There is no one-size-fits-all plan as far as dealing with disasters is concerned. With the dynamism of the business world, it is often impossible to have a plan that would be fitting all the calamities. You need to ensure that the plan would be the most efficient and effective leading to the least wastage of resources. In addition, you need to ascertain that the plan follows the set out guidelines or strategies. This can only be attained through auditing thee business continuity plan.

References

HYPERLINK “http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1074463528&type=RESOURCES” http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1074463528&type=RESOURCES

HYPERLINK “http://smallbusiness.chron.com/steps-required-testing-business-continuity-plan-4527.html” http://smallbusiness.chron.com/steps-required-testing-business-continuity-plan-4527.html

HYPERLINK “http://www.businesscontinuityinternational.com/Testing.htm” http://www.businesscontinuityinternational.com/Testing.htm

HYPERLINK “http://www.businesscontinuityinternational.com/Business%20Continuity%20Planning.htm” http://www.businesscontinuityinternational.com/Business%20Continuity%20Planning.htm

4. u05d2 Business Continuity Plan Audits (1 ½ page)

Change is constant in organizations. Changes occur in operations, technology, personnel, regulations, and every other area. Change management has several discrete steps. Prepare a post in which you discuss the key steps to auditing. Specifically, address why an audit plan should include:

The audit scope, timeline, requirements, and constraints.

A review of an organization’s risks and risk management strategies.

A review of business impact.

A review of plan development activities.

A review of test plans.

A review of training plans.

A review of change management and plan maintenance.

The importance of auditing in any organization cannot be underestimated. It is the process by which financial statements are examined in order for the auditor to ascertain that they are prepared according to the laid out framework of financial reporting. With the dynamism in many businesses continuous auditing has to be carried out giving the auditors the capacity to evaluate the sufficiency of the monitoring functioning of the management and identify as well as assess the risk areas.

Ascertaining the nature of the business- this would necessitate visiting the client and looking at files, past accounts as well as discussing with members of the staff.

Planning of the audit- preparing an audit memorandum, timing as well as the staff requirements. The scope, timing, and requirements would be dictated by the type of business as well as the risk areas. One of the risk areas is always the cash office where the records are likely to be altered in case of fraud. Determining the scope would help in prioritizing and circling on the risk areas.

Ascertain, evaluate and test the internal controls and other risk management strategies. This guides you as to the risk areas to pay attention to.

Test the systems in order to determine their effectiveness and consistency of their application at every relevant time. You would be using compliance tests whose operational basis is valid.

Pay attention to any changes not only in the plans but also the personnel- if there was change in the management, there would be likely to be a gap which may be exploited fraudulently. How was the change managed? Did it allow for any gaps in the disclosure requirements or even the legal structures?

Pay attention to the financial statements to ensure they conform to the industry standards and legal requirements. In such instances, you could use checklists.

Consider the financial statements and review the audit as well as the conclusions drawn. Reviewing the test and training plans at this stage will be effective in determining whether there is synchronization between the statements and the plans in which case you can tell whether they give a fair and true view. This also looks at any anomalies, disagreements and uncertainties from the responsible parties in preparation of these accounts.

Communication of the findings- the auditor would make a report on his findings giving his opinion on how fair, true and compliant the plans are with the laid down procedures. How the report is worded is subject to the conclusion that the auditor draws not only from the financial statements but also from the non-formals changes made by the business.

Reference

HYPERLINK “http://www.theiia.org/intAuditor/itaudit/archives/2008/february/six-steps-to-an-effective-continuous-audit-process/” http://www.theiia.org/intAuditor/itaudit/archives/2008/february/six-steps-to-an-effective-continuous-audit-process/

Six Steps to an Effective Continuous Audit Process

Carlos Elder de Aquino, Washington Lopes da Silva, Nilton Sigolo, Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

HYPERLINK “http://blog.rogercpareview.com/2009/10/10-steps-in-planning-audit.html” http://blog.rogercpareview.com/2009/10/10-steps-in-planning-audit.html

HYPERLINK “http://www.zainbooks.com/books/acounting-and-Finance/fundamentals-of-auditing_43_AUDIT-PLANNING-1.html” http://www.zainbooks.com/books/acounting-and-Finance/fundamentals-of-auditing_43_AUDIT-PLANNING-1.html

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Use the following coupon
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I need the following discussion question answered for me. Each question need to be answered individually with its on references.

1. u05d2 Limits on Effective Planning (1 page)

Discuss the impact on major recent disasters, either manmade or natural. Your analysis should consider the factors related to the emergency management organization (local, state, and federal) and the population as a whole.

Recent times have seen quite a considerable number of calamities. These range from fires, hurricanes, floods and other manmade calamities such as leakage sin nuclear facilities, terrorism etc. These disasters have definitely had their impacts on the lives of individuals.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is charged with the responsibility of reducing loss of property and lives while protecting the country from every type of hazards by leading as well as supporting the state in risk-based, all-inclusive system of response, preparedness, protection, recovery and alleviation.

The major impacts of recent disasters include-

Economic effects- hurricane Katrina that struck New Orleans in 2005 led to infrastructural losses of more than $100 billion. Interruption of exports and supplies is definitely unquantifiable not to mention that over half-a-million people supported by the region had no job to look forward to.

Social effects- natural disasters leave many people unable to access their jobs and homes. People are separated from their relatives thereby inflicting physical as well as emotional distress on the victims.

Political effects- in many cases when disasters happen, they catch the responsible agencies unprepared. It is therefore understandable when the blame-game and political disputes arise as to the way the disasters are handled.

Are there positive or negative forcing that limit effective planning?

Effective planning for disaster management is affected by varied factors including-

Lack of a unified response- while there are various agencies and bodies involved in thes efforts a coordinated response is in most cases difficult to attain. With every agency or body undertaking its own measures in isolation, it would be difficult to plan on how to respond to a particular disaster.

Lack of resources- personnel key equipments, facilities and supplies necessary for the prevention, mitigation of disasters are not always sufficient. It therefore becomes difficult to plan with the uncertainty as to the available resources.

References

Quarantelli, E. (2000). HYPERLINK “Javascript:loadPopupWithParm(‘http://dspace.udel.edu:8080/dspace/handle/19716/673′,’700′,’450’);” Disaster planning, emergency management and civil protection: The historical development of organized efforts to plan for and to respond to disasters. Retrieved from the Disaster Research Center at University of Delaware HYPERLINK “http://dspace.udel.edu:8080/dspace/handle/19716/673” http://dspace.udel.edu:8080/dspace/handle/19716/673

Pawlowski, M. (2007). Catastrophic disaster planning. Retrieved from Emergency Management Institute HYPERLINK “http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/docs/Pawlowski%20-%20Catastrophic%20Disaster%20Planning.ppt” http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/docs/Pawlowski%20-%20Catastrophic%20Disaster%20Planning.ppt

2. u05d1 The Los Angeles Riots Case Study (1 ½ pages)

Analyze at least three major resource management errors in the preparedness, response, and recovery stages of the Los Angeles riots. Begin with the NIMS definition of resources and the MACS model of resource management in the NRF. Compare and contrast positive and negative effects of interagency rivalries and cultural misunderstandings in the case study. What elements in the MACS model could have reduced or eliminated the resource management issues in the case study?

The Los Angeles riots, also known as Rodney King riots were triggered by the verdict delivered on 4 LAPD officers by 12 Jurors in California. The four police officers had been accused of beating Rodney King for over-speeding. Even before the case went to trial, it had received tremendous media coverage since a caption of the beating that King had received hit the airwaves. With such evidence, it seemed impossible that the verdicts would be in favor of the police officers. Since the verdict was broadcast live, news about the acquittal spread quickly and by afternoon of the same day, the riots had began. These riots continued for the better part of the week with tension rising high. More than fifty deaths were reported and tremendous looting done.

These riots exposed three major resource management errors as far as preparedness, response and recovery from the riots is concerned. Resources in this case refer to personnel, equipments, facilities and supplies available to be assigned in incident operations. These are maintained and released by the supervisory personnel.

Inadequate personnel- 30 minutes after the verdict was read, over three-hundred people gathered at LA County Courthouse in protest. One hour later, about 200 officers under LAPD confronted the crowd but were outnumbered and therefore had to retreat. So overpowered were the police that the rioters had the temerity to appear at the LAPD’s headquarters and other places such as Florence and start looting as well as attacking people and vehicles.

Lack of proper strategy for response- there is an incident where a white driver who had stopped at the South Normandie and Florence avenues intersection was dragged out of his truck and beaten severely. While this incident was being broadcast live by news helicopters that were hovering above, the police did not show up since they had been directed to retreat. While the retreat may have been for their safety, it is notable that the white driver was rescued by a civilian who drove him in his own truck.

After the violence, many people in Los Angeles bought weapons. Although this was thwarted during the rioting period, it definitely could mean worse casualties in the future.

Compare and contrast positive and negative effects of interagency rivalries and cultural misunderstandings in the case study.

As much as Los Angeles riots may have started due to the verdict, this was only a trigger. The riots were rooted on economic competition between Korean- Americans and African- Americans forced onto them by greater market forces. Economic desperation, racism and police brutality were the core issues here.

What elements in the MACS model could have reduced or eliminated the resource management issues in the case study?

Elements of the MACS model such as proper coordination of the resources (personnel) and prioritization of the situations that demand competing resources would have assisted in quelling the riots before they turned nasty. The elements include proper communication, personnel, protocol and procedures integrated in one system.

HYPERLINK “http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/1104/definitions.html” http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/1104/definitions.html

HYPERLINK “http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/FAQ.shtm” http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/FAQ.shtm

HYPERLINK “http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/la_riot.html” http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/la_riot.html

3. u05d1 Business Continuity Plan Testing and Auditing (1 page)

Prepare a post in which you discuss the testing and auditing of a business continuity plan. Address the following questions in your post:

What is one example of how to test a business continuity plan?

The business world has always been the envy of many people. One thing that you may however acknowledge is that, the business world like any other facet of life is clouded with uncertainty. Emergencies can crop up at anytime in the life of the business. Of course this would disrupt business, but how likely are you to go remain steady in business? This is where you need to put in place some measures to ensure that the business continues even after the emergency. A business continuity plan outlines the strategies that the business would put in place to ensure that its normal operations are least affected in the least possible way by calamities such as floods, fires, hurricanes etc.

One way of testing a business continuity plan is simulating fake scenarios that would be likely to affect your business. When simulating, ensure that the employees follow every step of your business continuity plan just like the scenario was real. Their responses and the response time must be reflecting the plan. Ensure that the employees given particular responsibilities step into those roles and execute them. After this, you will need to gather the employees and look into areas that will require improvement, which ones worked effectively and what changes need to be made to ensure that the best plan is in place.

Assuming a testing and training plan is in place, why would an organization audit the business continuity plan?

There is no one-size-fits-all plan as far as dealing with disasters is concerned. With the dynamism of the business world, it is often impossible to have a plan that would be fitting all the calamities. You need to ensure that the plan would be the most efficient and effective leading to the least wastage of resources. In addition, you need to ascertain that the plan follows the set out guidelines or strategies. This can only be attained through auditing thee business continuity plan.

References

HYPERLINK “http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1074463528&type=RESOURCES” http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1074463528&type=RESOURCES

HYPERLINK “http://smallbusiness.chron.com/steps-required-testing-business-continuity-plan-4527.html” http://smallbusiness.chron.com/steps-required-testing-business-continuity-plan-4527.html

HYPERLINK “http://www.businesscontinuityinternational.com/Testing.htm” http://www.businesscontinuityinternational.com/Testing.htm

HYPERLINK “http://www.businesscontinuityinternational.com/Business%20Continuity%20Planning.htm” http://www.businesscontinuityinternational.com/Business%20Continuity%20Planning.htm

4. u05d2 Business Continuity Plan Audits (1 ½ page)

Change is constant in organizations. Changes occur in operations, technology, personnel, regulations, and every other area. Change management has several discrete steps. Prepare a post in which you discuss the key steps to auditing. Specifically, address why an audit plan should include:

The audit scope, timeline, requirements, and constraints.

A review of an organization’s risks and risk management strategies.

A review of business impact.

A review of plan development activities.

A review of test plans.

A review of training plans.

A review of change management and plan maintenance.

The importance of auditing in any organization cannot be underestimated. It is the process by which financial statements are examined in order for the auditor to ascertain that they are prepared according to the laid out framework of financial reporting. With the dynamism in many businesses continuous auditing has to be carried out giving the auditors the capacity to evaluate the sufficiency of the monitoring functioning of the management and identify as well as assess the risk areas.

Ascertaining the nature of the business- this would necessitate visiting the client and looking at files, past accounts as well as discussing with members of the staff.

Planning of the audit- preparing an audit memorandum, timing as well as the staff requirements. The scope, timing, and requirements would be dictated by the type of business as well as the risk areas. One of the risk areas is always the cash office where the records are likely to be altered in case of fraud. Determining the scope would help in prioritizing and circling on the risk areas.

Ascertain, evaluate and test the internal controls and other risk management strategies. This guides you as to the risk areas to pay attention to.

Test the systems in order to determine their effectiveness and consistency of their application at every relevant time. You would be using compliance tests whose operational basis is valid.

Pay attention to any changes not only in the plans but also the personnel- if there was change in the management, there would be likely to be a gap which may be exploited fraudulently. How was the change managed? Did it allow for any gaps in the disclosure requirements or even the legal structures?

Pay attention to the financial statements to ensure they conform to the industry standards and legal requirements. In such instances, you could use checklists.

Consider the financial statements and review the audit as well as the conclusions drawn. Reviewing the test and training plans at this stage will be effective in determining whether there is synchronization between the statements and the plans in which case you can tell whether they give a fair and true view. This also looks at any anomalies, disagreements and uncertainties from the responsible parties in preparation of these accounts.

Communication of the findings- the auditor would make a report on his findings giving his opinion on how fair, true and compliant the plans are with the laid down procedures. How the report is worded is subject to the conclusion that the auditor draws not only from the financial statements but also from the non-formals changes made by the business.

Reference

HYPERLINK “http://www.theiia.org/intAuditor/itaudit/archives/2008/february/six-steps-to-an-effective-continuous-audit-process/” http://www.theiia.org/intAuditor/itaudit/archives/2008/february/six-steps-to-an-effective-continuous-audit-process/

Six Steps to an Effective Continuous Audit Process

Carlos Elder de Aquino, Washington Lopes da Silva, Nilton Sigolo, Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

HYPERLINK “http://blog.rogercpareview.com/2009/10/10-steps-in-planning-audit.html” http://blog.rogercpareview.com/2009/10/10-steps-in-planning-audit.html

HYPERLINK “http://www.zainbooks.com/books/acounting-and-Finance/fundamentals-of-auditing_43_AUDIT-PLANNING-1.html” http://www.zainbooks.com/books/acounting-and-Finance/fundamentals-of-auditing_43_AUDIT-PLANNING-1.html

"Get 15% discount on your first 3 orders with us"
Use the following coupon
FIRST15

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