Chapter Four: Result and analysis
The purpose of the survey was to get an understanding of the attainment and the status of human knowledge capital development in maintenance project in KFSH & RC. In so doing, the influence that exists between human knowledge capital and performance in project management in this facility is examined. Two types of hypothesis are evaluated. The two statistics tools are student t-test and the z- test. In order to achieve this task, a random sample of data is picked from KFSH & RC and used. A sample of 750 KFSH & RC employees and employers were sampled.
Data reduction to manageable numbers
From a total of 750 questionnaires issued, 639 were returned. Some fully filled and other half or quarter filled. It was important for proper and finer focus to eliminate all information that were either irrelevant or did not directly contribute to the topic. The duplicated information was also eliminated. Two or more half filled or less than half filled questionnaires were combined to be one or two fully filled questionnaires. All contradicting information was eliminated and questionnaires with similar information, one was picked or two combined to form one. Finally, (after analysis), a sample of 31 questionnaire for employees was used for the z- test while that t- test was 23 questionnaires from the employers. In the questionnaire, the performance increment was scaled from 50% to 120%. The employers and employees with close reference to the past records, the overall performance of KFSH & RC was determined. The 50% was the general increment in the company profitability. It was thus important to recognize the general growth of KFSH & RC considering the factors like increased number of employees, increased production and other related matters.
The results for the employees rating are as follows (to be used in z-test): 93, 103, 95, 101, 94, 91, 105, 94, 101, 88, 98,94,101,92,94, 93, 102, 95, 101, 94, 91, 105, 94, 101, 88, 98, 94, 101, 92, 100 and 93. Since training impacts is directly related to the performance of KFSH & RC, the data collected in relation to the increased productivity was valid and appropriate.
Step1: Stating the Statistical Hypothesis
In determining whether there is a link between the training, coaching, learning and creativity, innovation and experience of the maintenance staff that undertook the Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011 with the overall performance of KFSH & RC, two hypotheses were used.
H1: μ < 100 (alternative hypothesis) (there is a link between the training, coaching, learning and creativity, innovation and experience of the maintenance staff that undertook the Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011 with the overall performance of KFSH & RC).
HO: μ = 100 (Null hypothesis) (there is no link between the training, coaching, learning and creativity, innovation and experience of the maintenance staff that undertook the Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011 with the overall performance of KFSH & RC). This is to say, suppose the null hypothesis is correct, then there is a link and if the alternative hypothesis is correct, then there is no link. These hypotheses will be tested at a significant level of 5%.
It is assumed that KFSH & RC investment in learning, education, experience, expertise, innovation, and creativity of its maintenance staff involved in Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011 has gradually assisted in the improvement of KFSH & RC performance. The overall employee/employer performance is distributed about the mean productivity increase. This implies that since the sample is randomly drawn from a normally distributed population (and productivity analyzed over three years), the sample belongs to a sampling distribution that exhibit normal distribution about the mean. This will help further research whether the learning, education, experience, expertise, innovation, and creativity of maintenance staff in the Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011 has contributed to the increased productivity of KFSH & RC in general (second objective).
Consequently, the implication is a sample that is expected to exhibit a mean identical of the source population. While the productivity in respect to the number of months (since the introduction of Cyclotron operation) it bears the property of a standard normal distribution will have a distribution N (0, 1), we assume that the source population for the sample has a distribution N (100, 6).
Step3: Test Statistic
Two types of test statistics were used to assess the hypotheses. First, the z-test was used for the sample and then another random sample of 23 days was selected, which was assessed through the t-test. For the z-test, the following statistics applied. Assessment of the skewness and kurtosis gives a positive skewness for both the tests. This means that the distribution is skewed to the right. However, the degree of skewness is slight and next to zero hence, the distribution is normal and almost normally distributed about the mean.
z-Test: Two Sample for Means
Known Variance 36
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
P(Z<=z) one-tail 0.5
z Critical one-tail 1.644853627
P(Z<=z) two-tail 1
z Critical two-tail 1.959963985
Ho: μ = 100
H1: μ < 100
Z value = (μ1 – μ2)/ (σ/√n)
= (96.32 –100)/ (6/31½)
The standard deviation of the sample is -3.414895476 and because of the normal distribution assumption; it is further assumed that the population and the sample have equal standard deviations hence variance.
Test Value = 100
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Sample for z-test -4.286 30 .000 -3.677 -5.43 -1.92
Step4: Evaluation of Statistic
The results for the t- test give t value of 3.842 at a significance value of 0.95 with a degree of freedom of 22. This t-value falls within the rejection region. The result of the z- test gives a value -1.644854. This value falls within the rejection region. The rejection region based on z-test is -1.645. The difference between the two figures is not large enough to disqualify chance as source of the difference.
Step5: Interpretation of Results
Since the t-value does not fall within our rejection region, we accept the aletrenative hypothesis that there is a link between the training, coaching, learning and creativity, innovation and experience of the maintenance staff that undertook the Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011 with the overall performance of KFSH & RC). The value indicates that there is sufficient evidence that the training has aided to the increased production of KFSH & RC since its introduction.
Therefore, the alternate hypothesis applies. Based on the z-test, the observed z-value is -1.644854 against a rejection mark of -1.645. The observed z-value and the rejection mark value have insignificant difference because the figure is converted to three significant figures. For this reason, the observed value falls on the rejection mark and therefore it leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis. Both the results (the results for z- test and those for t- test) give values that fall within the rejection region and hence the null hypothesis is rejected for both (Hinton 243). This gives sufficient evidence to accept that there is a link between training and the overall performance of KFSH & RC. The study therefore ascertains that improving the performance of employees through training will create marked opportunities for its development, and, therefore, foster positive social change and increased production. A contribution to positive social change evident through this propose study by providing an environment conducive for learning, teamwork, enhance competence, understanding complex disease and safe practice. Currently, the clinical experience is under performing, given limited opportunities to learn problem solving, and lack of confidence in the clinical arena. Finding measures to reverse the adverse effects of providing clinical experience is beneficial to nursing schools around the world. The basic premise of this research is that improving education of employees will directly increase student knowledge, ability, and confidence.
Assumptions and Limitations
The assumptions to the study conducted in this context are diverse and are directly linked to the variables that relate to the training, coaching, learning and creativity, innovation and experience of the maintenance staff that undertook the Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011 with the overall performance of KFSH & RC. The interviewees and those submitting the questionnaires are assumed to have had adequate knowledge of the past performance since the introduction of the program.
The assumption is aimed at the research or study, especially the data analysis, possible. Imitative measures are provided for in the chosen tool of statistical analysis; t-test extenuates the risk of inaccurate results due to this assumptions and rounding offs or various values.
The main limitation of the study is the limiting of participants to either employers or employees of the company. All the data submitted by the source (employers and employees) in this case are assumed to be true. This research will illuminate the functionality of a proposed method through which the performance of employers and employees can be improved.
The fact that this study is limited to one company (KFSH & RC) limit the generalization of its finding. However, the medical industry being knowledge-intensive industry shows just who applicable this research can be to the rest of the industries.
Problems encountered during the research
This therefore means that it required large sums of money if it is to be a total success. At the moment there is no assurance that the researcher will be getting this kind of money in full without cutting some budgetary items or resorting to alternative sources of finances, finances that might come with strings attached. This therefore calls upon the researcher to seek alternative sources of funding in advance to avoid a situation where a deficient might be occasioned by some funder pulling out in the last minute or even offering smaller amount than the budgeted amount.
Unwillingness on the part of respondents: Achieving 100% cooperation with the respondents is normally a tall order for a researcher in research study of this type and magnitude. This is especially if they suspect that the said research might expose their individual performance. The researcher would be mistaken to think that this particular research study will be an exception. Therefore the researcher ought to be prepared for a situation where the respondents might be unwilling to give sensitive information concerning certain aspects of their work that the researcher might be interested in (Dulewicz, & Higgs, 1999, pg. 14). It is therefore incumbent upon the researcher to assure the respondents a high level of confidentiality if he is to overcome this challenge.
Distorted responses: This is an extension of lack of cooperation on the part of respondents. In this case, a respondent who is not interested in diverging certain information to the researcher for one reason of another might resort to giving inaccurate answers to the researcher (Fatt, 2002. Pg. 28). This intention distortion is even more dangerous to the research than outright lack of cooperation in that it gives an impression that the answers that have been given are accurate, thereby giving false finding, unreliable interpretations and wrong conclusions and recommendations (Hecker, 1996). The best way the research should do in order to bypass this bottleneck is to avoid pushing for answers from respondents. This will be best done through allowing them to answer through their own volition and to leave any question that they might be unable or unwilling to answer.
Research personnel: This kind of research will require personnel that are well-versed with numerical and analytical skills. Mobilizing this kind of personnel is neither easy nor cheap. The same applies to outsourcing the services of this kind of a team. This leaves the researcher with only one option – training them which also as its fair share of bottlenecks.
Qualitative Analysis of Cyclotron operation section upgrade
Past records on the performance of KFSH & RC offered different research reports and peer-reviewed journals that are fundamental to a study of this nature. A key example of these resources was the research report by Gillies (2003) which elucidates the common basis of cooperative learning, that implemented by nurses in various hospitals.
In such a setting as described above, teachers are akin to moderators who primarily transmit their expertise to the students when necessary. This is aimed at giving them absolute control over the learning process as it becomes less passive and more participatory. The apparent strong points of the Cyclotron operation section upgrade lie in the knowledge gained or experience got while working. Interactive and participatory approaches to learning serve the purpose of allowing students to merge theory with practice, so as to avoid any biased preference of one side to the other. It also implies the direct application of the gained information in the appropriate field. Students are given the opportunity to utilize their newly acquired knowledge for the purpose of discovering more information, than with regard to the topic of study. The Cyclotron operation section upgrade also provided avenues through which learners could understand a topic better, through the inclusion of the person’s point of view.
Cyclotron operation section upgrade provided additional support for cooperation in the learning process by pointing out that the effectiveness of learning depended on its context and embedded activities. Cyclotron operation section upgrade participants were provided with challenging tasks that they are expected to complete in collaboration. It also used problem-solving techniques as its cornerstone. Within the context of collaborative learning, educators typically began with particular problems that require practical solutions, as opposed to, starting with theoretical frameworks of study and then moving on to the application. This enhanced the participation and application of the gained knowledge.
The studying context provided by Cyclotron operation section upgrade enabled learners or employees in this case to practice their individual problem solving skills while assessing their level of improvement in particular areas of study. Concisely, this taped into another key assumption of Cyclotron operation section upgrade as underscored by Dyson, Griffin and Hastie (2004). Individual learners cannot be standardized as an inflexible sodality since they are different in various ways. These differences are virtually always complementary to each other, which opens yet another thoroughfare that instructors can use while teaching.
The students’ diverse backgrounds and experiences are some of the major extraneous factors that influenced the learning process. This effectively invalidates learning approaches that have been traditionally based on standardizing students. Cyclotron operation section upgrade allowed instructors and employees/employers to understand the different ideas and approaches present with each learner. Consequently, lessons and study plans coul be modified to fit every learner and so its convenience.
Cyclotron operation section upgrade exploited the social attribute of learning. In essence, as students engaged each other in debates and discussions with regard to a particular problem, they are putting to use their communication and interpersonal skills. These interpersonal interactions among students are what actually enabled effective learning to occur and therefore better performance. The social nature of Cyclotron operation section upgrade encouraged employees collectively to convey their individual capacities; thereby creating an indispensable intellectual synergy that not only makes learning faster, but more interesting. The problem-solving process, therefore, made easier and more stimulating.
Learner motivation has been unequivocally touted as the elixir of effective learning, which is needed to equip learners with the appropriate skills for managing the dynamism of social and professional life. Different people, however, generate and use motivation in variant ways. This fact places the onerous task of discovering and ascertaining the nature of motivation among all students on the shoulders of educators. Linnenbrink (2005) noted that students require the constant reinforcement of their motivation to learn in order to guarantee satisfactory acquisition of knowledge.
Cyclotron operation section upgrade has improved performance in the nurses as it incorporated both the simulation effects and the theoretical information that then reinforced their knowledge in practical nursing. With the application of the diverse approaches in teaching of the nursing students, it is evident that the employees widened their understanding and therefore was able to aid the patients in meeting their medical needs.
Education research has advanced incessant calls for increasing the participation of students in the learning process, especially in institutions of higher learning. These calls come with growing evidence for the capability of collaborative learning techniques to enhance both retention and success in colleges. Collaborative undertakings involve teamwork whereby members have to deal with their individual differences amicably for any significant progress to be realized. The ability of people to either tolerate or resolve their differences spells out the necessary components of a harmonious society achieved through collaboration and teamwork.
Cyclotron operation section upgrade directly or indirectly was pivotal in improving linguistic and psychological, capabilities. This is a means to challenge students to work together. Johnson, et al, (1981) stated that Cyclotron operation section upgrade improved motivation among students. Also, employees were increasing their performance and academic achievement, which is the desire of every organization and employee. Through Cyclotron operation section upgrade, employees were equally affected by their self esteem, whereas, improvement of attitude towards learning and towards their particular areas of work.
In this study the main task was to determine link between the training, coaching, learning and creativity, innovation and experience of the maintenance staff that undertook the Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011 with the overall performance of KFSH & RC. Where training, coaching, learning and the experience, expertise, innovation, and creativity of the staffs involved in this project refers to the human knowledge capital of KFSH & RC. In most of the researches conducted in the past, a positive relation is existent between employee training and its effect on learning processes. Introduction of Cyclotron operation section upgrade leaded the employee to a clearer understanding of their requirements. This later translates to better performance and quality service delivery by those participating in Cyclotron operation section upgrade.
The research indicates the existent of a link between the training, coaching, learning and creativity, innovation and experience of the maintenance staff that undertook the Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011 with the overall performance of KFSH & RC. Where training, coaching, learning and the experience, expertise, innovation, and creativity of the staffs involved in this project refers to the human knowledge capital of KFSH & RC. Where employee training is directly related to the general and overall performance of KFSH & RC. It is, however, important to point out that, in the research the study focused more than on individuals’ responses and perception of Cyclotron operation section upgrade project of 2011.