A study of a planned strategic change for small enterprises and the challenges such enterprises are facing due to their strategies.
TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430223” 1. Aims of the Dissertation: the aims of this dissertation are includes the following: PAGEREF _Toc385430223 h 1
HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430224” 2. Methodology: PAGEREF _Toc385430224 h 1
HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430225” 2.1 Primary research PAGEREF _Toc385430225 h 1
HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430226” 2.2 Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc385430226 h 2
HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430227” 2.2 Ethical consideration PAGEREF _Toc385430227 h 2
HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430228” 2.4 Data analysis and presentation PAGEREF _Toc385430228 h 3
HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430229” 2.5 Research validity and reliability PAGEREF _Toc385430229 h 3
HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430230” 3. Feasibility: PAGEREF _Toc385430230 h 3
HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430231” 4. How the Work Fits Existing Published Work: PAGEREF _Toc385430231 h 3
HYPERLINK l “_Toc385430232” 5. Why You Are Doing This Topic: PAGEREF _Toc385430232 h 5
1. Aims of the Dissertation: the aims of this dissertation are includes the following:To investigate the challenges that are encountered during planned strategic change for small enterprises as a result of the strategies that they use.
To identify the best strategies for adoption at the time of planning for strategic changes in small enterprises.
To come up with recommendations about the need for planned strategic change in small enterprises that will facilitate effective operations in a competitive environment.
To advice managers in small enterprises about the need for effectively planning for the strategic changes in order to achieve success.
In order to investigate the aims and hypothesis of this dissertation, it is imperative to carry out a research which is intended to give first hand information in as far as the challenges that are encountered during planned strategic change for small enterprises are concerned.
This section therefore spells out the procedures and the methods that will be employed in achieving the stated aims. It defines location of the study, research procedures and analysis plan that would be put in consideration when carrying out this particular research. The research is supposed to start with the clear understanding of the research objectives as well as the hypothesis. Success of the project will depend on the provision of satisfying information in line with the objectives and hypothesis.
The objective of the research just as a recap is to investigate the challenges that are encountered during planned strategic change for small enterprises as a result of the strategies that they use. It is important to note here that this research is mainly based on the a pilot study before using a questionnaire with the main sample
2.1 Primary researchPrimary research is an important aspect of this research and involves the collection of data that does not exist. This can be through numerous forms: including pilot study, questionnaires, telephone conversations, surveys, etc. As pertained to this project, the primary sources would likely be the small enterprises considering the planned strategic change and the challenges that they face as a result of the strategies that they adopt. The major merit with conducting primary research is that it is accurate. However, the disadvantage of primary research is that it may be time consuming as a result of the diversity in the sample considered.
Secondary research on the other hand is the collection of existing data, that is, in contrast to primary research. For example: research on experiments or specific subjects. The merit of secondary research is that it’s not time consuming however a disadvantage is that the information retrieved may not be relevant (Brinker, 1993).
Pilot study is a research strategy that was considered for the sake of this study which involved investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon in the real life situation using multiple sources of evidence. More elaborate explanation on the nature of the pilot study as a research strategy was given by Thompson, (2007) in whose view pilot study represents ‘a specific way of collecting, organizing, and analyzing data’. Grounded theory represents a strategy which posits that the data is collected through observations and compared to various theoretical frameworks in order to discover which of the data is the most appropriate. This leads the researcher into making predictions about the studied phenomena prior to putting the findings into test (Thompson, 2007).
2.2 QuestionnairesThis research will mainly carried out using questionnaires. A questionnaire enables the information to be gathered from many respondents who were directly involved planned strategic change for small enterprises. Use of a questionnaire as a quantitative method for collecting data from the sources was found to be the most appropriate method of collecting mass responses and as such, providing a good method of comparative analysis. The questionnaires that will be used cover a number of data sources to find out opinions and views regarding the challenges that are encountered during planned strategic change for small enterprises.
Designing good questionnaires requires significant skills and experience. The researcher shall embark on the study by setting up survey questionnaires that address issues relevant to the interviews conducted. It is important to pilot or test the questionnaire as fully as possible before distributing them to the interviewees to fill them. This questionnaire enables elaborate information to be obtained from small enterprises (Carr, Hard & Trahant, 2002).
2.2 Ethical considerationThe participants were supplied with different questionnaires based on specific areas of interests. All the participants were given their respectively informed consent for the purpose of participation in the research. They were informed prior to the research, the purposes, the potential benefits as well as the risks that might be associated with their participation. Ethical standards shall be considered in the process of the procedures of the research.
It is an ethical requirement that all the people taking part in this study shall be informed about the rationale of the research and the intentions of the researcher by means of an introductory letter that shall be sent to them. All the findings taken care of higher levels of confidentiality and as a matter of ethics, none of the sources, be it personal or at organization level, shall correlated with any particular observation, nor shall any comment be associated without explicit permission from the source. All the information gathered during the interviews shall be treated as confidential and every individual participant shall be given full rights of anonymity. All interviewees shall be treated with high degree of respect and esteem.
2.4 Data analysis and presentation
The collected data will be analyzed using the Statistical Programme for Social Scientists (SPSS)
2.5 Research validity and reliability
A debate about the findings of the preceding literatures on the challenges that are encountered during planned strategic change for small enterprises inevitably includes a discussion of ‘research’, normally referring to the way in which the data were collected”. This research being a phenomenological, all questions are related to theoretical characteristics discussed in literature preview. The process would therefore be accurate in collecting, analyzing and sampling data; hence the validity of result would be quite high. Considering that there are many different aspects of validity, which influence the validity of the research in general.
3. Feasibility:The research process proved to be time consuming, as it involves dealing with diversified walks of life from different/various regions. It was found that, the human sources could become resourceful out of their own willingness, and this may take them quit sometimes before making up their minds to tell you what they know or give you their side stories about your questions
4. How the Work Fits Existing Published Work:Planned strategic change for small enterprises are practices of strategic management aimed at addressing the emergent initiatives facing the general managers of small enterprises on behalf of the owners. The target is an efficient utilization of the available resources for the purpose of enhancing the performance of small enterprises in the context of external environment. The preliminary steps towards the realization of the intended goals relates to the specification of the mission, the vision as well as the objectives of small enterprises, followed by the development of plans together with policies in the form of projects as well as programs whose design is tailored towards the achievements of the intended objectives (Chisnall, P., 1995).
The other step is a wise allocation of resources that are at the disposal of small enterprises geared towards the implementation of the laid down programs, projects as a well as plans. The performance of small enterprises in the process of implementation of the policies is usually subjected to a balanced scorecard for the sake of evaluation of the business progress towards reaching at the anticipated objectives. According to the recent findings of research, there is a strong indication that small enterprises need the relevant theories of application of stakeholder expectations accompanied by the modified scorecard where all the stakeholders are included (Chisnall, 1995).
The most notable strategic issues for change that small enterprises are facing relates to the commitments of the organization towards the involvement of the customers in shaping the aspects of the services of the customer. The small enterprises clearly understand that in case a change is required, the most recommended basis of advice to the small enterprises are the customers. The enterprises therefore are very keen in listening to the suggestions that the customers offer in an attempt of involving them in the process of policy deliberation and implementation. The engagement of the customers has been identified as the best approach towards the delivery of the most appropriate services as a result of a positive response to the needs of the customers (Guha, S. Kettinger, W. & Teng, T., 2001
With respect to planned strategic change for small enterprises, there are some key principles that are responsible for its best practice (Rummler, G & Brache, Alan P., 2006). There is a need for the process of the small enterprises to support the needs of the business. All the processes should result to the increase in the value of small enterprises through offering the support to the visions of the business as well as supporting its strategies. Actions that contradict these are responsible for lowering of utility of the effort of change, therefore placing it at the risk due to the reasons of a lack of the crucial support of small enterprises responsible for its success (Rummler & Brache, Alan. 2006).
Small enterprises should be staged with those people who are in a position of supporting and executing the operations of the business in the most successful manner. Offering support to the personnel of the management at the small enterprises multiple levels is a very important issue with regard to the success of the effort of change. The best reason attributed to this argument is based on their position which is influential in offering motivation to others in as far as change is concerned. This is based on the application of some mechanisms aided by directing the entire staff towards the acceptance of change (Jick & Peiperl, 2002). Further more, the cadre of the personnel who have been affected by the changes in a direct manner are documented to show the proof of diverse traits as well as skill that sanction them to adopt the changes in an effective manner. The traits in question may be intelligence, integrity, among others. Change efforts should be planned for the purpose of maximizing on returns as far as investments are concerned and at the same time minimizing on potential risks. Changes that prove to be most successful are based on good planning results. The processes that are involved in planning at small enterprises are charged with the responsibility of identification effects of change, change benefits and the option of initiating the changes (Jick & Peiperl, 2002).
The measurement of the quality of the process should be determined. This is vital in application for determination of the success associated with the change efforts. The same information is fundamental to small enterprises in the comparison of the really extent of change in relation to allocation of the resources on the basis of the gaps that are in existence in the expected progress (Taylor, 2001).
It has become imperative that small enterprises realize the reason behind the failure of meeting the set goals of the business. The secret lies behind setting positive goals accompanied with the adoption of the most powerful practices of strategic management. The achievement of this leads to the ignition of enthusiasm in addition to the provision of a clear direction. The poor setting of the goals leads to serious downside that consequently undermines the success of small enterprises. The approach in which the affairs of businesses are run in modern society needs to take into perceptions consideration, thoughts and aspirations. Small enterprises have a risk management framework in place that highlights key risks and how they are to be managed. Risk panels have been established throughout the planned strategic change for small enterprises to review all new projects. The revised structure should help small enterprises gain an even greater understanding of risk, chiefly those concerning growth issues (Davenport, T. 2003). For Planned strategic change for small enterprises to be considered as active, active gathering of available information is a preliquisite. The available information is consequently applied in identification of the most appropriate solution to the earmarked problems. The development of a system of accessing information has facilitated the senior management in small enterprises to have an access of a comprehensive view to strategic management as compared to the past. One of the most applicable comprehensive systems involves the use of the approach of balanced scorecard (Ponzi & Koenig, 2002). To develop its competences and enhance competitive advantage small enterprises should understand the environment it’s operating in so as to also to understand their strategic options. Market penetration is one of the most important aspects that should be considered by small enterprises in the planning as well as implementation of an effective planned strategic change. A systems thinking advance across small enterprises which puts customers at the centre of all its service provision and shapes services to meet the needs of the customers as well as increase in market share of the services that exist in the enterprises at present. There are also some practices that are responsible for supporting the establishment of change in small enterprises that is anticipated to be successful.
5. Why You Are Doing This Topic:Planned strategic change for small enterprises is an important accomplishment and trying to device means of overcoming the challenges associated with the process is the duty of the management of small enterprises. The suitability of planned strategic change is a factor of the entire rationale behind the strategy. The most significant issue is the consideration of the strategy that is effective in addressing vital strategic issues that are underlined by the strategic position of small enterprises. The most important questions to be answered are as follows:
Is it associated with an economic sense:
Shall the small enterprises get “ HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economies_of_scale” o “Economies of scale” economies of scale” or “ HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economies_of_scope” o “Economies of scope” economies of scope”?
Is there any suitability considering the environment as well as capabilities?
The suitability of the topic is assessed with the use of some tools which include
Ranking the strategic options
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_tree” o “Decision tree” Decision trees
6. Timing Mileposts
Week commencing 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 Explore literature Writing literature review Reading on methodology Writing methodology Questionnaire design Collection of qualitative data Collection of quantitative data Analysis of qualitative data Analysis of quantitative data Writing conclusion Submission of first draft Revision and submission of final draft Milestone Description Due date Remarks1 Stage 1: Area of interest identified2 Stage 2: Specific topic selected3 Stage 3: Topic refined to develop dissertation proposal4 Stage 4: Proposal written and submitted5 Stage 5: Collection of data and information6 Stage 6: Analysis and interpretation of collected data/information7 Stage 7: Writing up8 Stage 8: Final draft prepared – submission of dissertation9 Final Deadline – nine months from classroom date.
Brinker, B. J. 1993, Book reviews: Strategic cost management and Peter Drucker’s latest. Journal of Cost Management, 70-71.
Carr, D., Hard, K. J. & Trahant, W. 2002, Managing the Change Process, NY, McGraw-Hill.
Chisnall, P., 1995, Strategic Business Marketing, NY, Praeger.
Davenport, T. 2003, Process Innovation. Boston, Harvard Business School Press.
Guha, S. Kettinger, W. & Teng, T., 2001, “Business Process Reengineering”: Information Systems Management Vol. 6 34-67.
Jick, T., & Peiperl, M.A., 2002, Managing change: Cases and concepts (2nd ed.). New York, McGraw
Ponzi, L. & Koenig, M., 2002, “Knowledge management: another management fad” Information Research, 8(1).
Rummler, G & Brache, Alan P., 2006, Improving Performance. New York, Prentience Hall
Taylor, 2001, The principles of scientific management. New York, Harper & Row.
Thompson, J., 2007, Organizations in Action, New York, MacGraw-Hill.