Total Quality Management Helps in Empowering the Members of Marriot
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Current studies based on total quality management (TQM) present that some sudden change in applying TQM from the process of manufacturing to voluminous studies and service organization are undertaken in this process (Goetsch, Davis and Goetsch, 2010). In all the industries TQM captured a strong position in every sector, emerging out as one approach for waste reduction, process improvement, quality performance and business optimization. Moreover, many academicians and researchers acknowledge that TQM is applicable for sustainable advantage of competition for the service organizations. Towards this end, the study takes the purpose in understanding how TQM is applicable to service organizations like Marriot (Pekar and Pekar, 2009).
Total quality management happens to be one management philosophy which will empower all the members in any organization. The purpose of TQM is to encourage every individual in participating, offering and contributing suggestions so that improvement happens (Implementation of total quality management, 1993). The intention of it is in promoting sustained and continuous improvement in performance and quality, and developing a quality culture attitude. The basic principle that TQM follows is the prevention cost remains less than correction cost. In understanding how an organization can have an excellent running condition and attain its brand value in the market, understanding TQM and the necessity of it is very important. In studying the concept of TQM, a hospitality industry based company is chosen from UAE and its attributes in TQM will be carefully studied. This is done to understand how TQM contributes to the overall face lift of any organization and how the overall performance metrics of any organization is enhanced through excellence and TQM of the organization.
Rationale behind the Study
For any company to grow and run successfully, it is extremely essential that the company has a very good work production as well as generates overall satisfaction for its employees, Although, it is not necessary that a company would have to look good in order to produce outstanding revenue earnings etc., one cannot deny that the total quality management is taken into account (Naidu, Babu and Rajendra, 2006). Total Quality Management is one individual field of study in management which tries to completely study an organizations well being. With a huge amount of competition in every industry, companies need to have image that can give it a better position amongst its competition (Lal, 2008).
The following hypotheses have been formulated based on research on the topic:
H1: Is it possible that via the applications of TQM, the empowerment of the employees of Marriot can happen?
H0: Will the result of employee empowerment in Marriot would bring in positive results in better customer acquisition as well as maintaining the existing customer base?
What management aspects are required to bring excellence in the work performance of Marriot?
What would be the output in terms of performance of Marriot with the application of total quality management?
What difference would come of the employees in Marriot by applying total quality management?
In conducting the research and determining in depth about the implications and effects of TQM on the Abu Dhabi Aviation, the researcher will use descriptive research of mixed research type, where both primary and secondary research will be conducted. In primary research, empirical study would be done by conducting a survey of around 100 people living in UAE, followed by a qualitative analysis through interview of some 15 managers of Marriot.
The whole dissertation is divided into 5 chapters. Chapter 1 is Introduction where the background, rationale and scope of the research is discussed with the research objectives, question discussed. Chapter 2 is Literature Review which deals with the secondary research and works on finding the theories, concepts and models of TQM. Chapter 3 deals with the total Methodology of the dissertation, detailing the different processes that are used in evaluating the theory that is proposed by the researcher. Chapter 4 does the empirical data analysis and discusses the findings in detail. The Concluding chapter will check if the primary and secondary findings would be able to satisfy the objectives proposed in the dissertation.
The whole purpose of this proposal is to attempt a dissertation trying to understand the implication of having total quality management implemented on big organizations. For this purpose a big organization Marriot has been chosen, whose organizational structure and functioning will be studied. With the help of a questionnaire survey, the impact of TQM on the better performance of the industry would be studied to find if the theory proposed can be validated or not.
Goetsch, D., Davis, S. and Goetsch, D. (2010). Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Implementation of total quality management. (1993). Total Quality Management, 4(4), pp.103-122.
Lal, H. (2008). Organizational excellence through total quality management. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers.
Naidu, N., Babu, K. and Rajendra, G. (2006). Total quality management. New Delhi: New Age International.
Pekar, J. and Pekar, J. (2009). Business performance excellence through total quality management. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
Chapter One: Introduction1.1 IntroductionTotal quality management (TQM) is one never ending journey where change is only permanent. TQM is strategy and philosophy minded customer, where total implies all members in an organization will make consistent trials in achieving a customer’s objective using systematic efforts towards improvement (Wankhade and Dabade, 2010). It is a must for all employees to participate towards the developing shared mission, vision, quests and goals so that continuous improvement happens. These kinds of participants would require specified efforts in acquiring the skills and knowledge in facing everyday problems along with the making of fast yet lower risk decisions. TQM does not have the attitude of getting things worked out at any cost. It rather is one systematic approach towards process improvement, quality for enabling customer delight. Looking from the organization perspective, TQM success is not easy. It is never easy receiving total support from each and all members of the organization. Some of the organization members would remain suspicious about the management which could lead to higher needs in output and reduce the requirements in manpower (Naidu et al., 2006).
1.2 Background of the studyEmployees will not suddenly begin feeling empowered as their managers tell them so. Organizational practices, policies and structures have to be changed to empower them on sustained rate. It could be possible that an employee is given sudden adrenaline rush after a charismatic leader has given a speech on how these employees are the fore front of any organization and are critical for its effectiveness (Mandal, 2011). However, this would pass if there are no organizational practices, policies and structures are continually and constantly sending message that employees get empowered so that they can deal effectively with the customers.
Research has suggested that there is existence of empowerment when there is implementation of practices by company distributing information rewards, power and knowledge within the organization (Goetsch et al., 2010). The process is working very frequently within those companies that abandoned the top-down, traditional, control-oriented model of management towards what is called an approach through high involvement. High-involvement organizations (HIOs) find the use of systems towards multiple managements in creating environment where not only management but every individual is given the encouragement towards strategic thinking about their businesses and jobs in assuming personal responsibility towards their work quality (Evans and Lindsay, 2002).
1.3 Scope of the studyAs the company chosen for the research is Marriott Hotels from Emirates, it is very essential that one finds if the topic at all has relevance with the company’s ongoing function or not. Marriott being a private company of huge market base and an elite customer base, it can very well show if TQM can be successfully implemented in empowering its employees to make itself run in an efficient manner. After a lot of research and studying of the different papers on how TQM affects the business enterprises and different organizations in UAE, it was found that not much work has been done on the effect of TQM on employee empowerment. Since, it is evident that by empowering the employees, they would feel more responsible towards their job roles and hence, provide inputs that are more responsible and efficient; hence, the choice of the topic seemed relevant and worthwhile.
1.4 Rationale behind the studyGoetsch et al., (2006) state that power could be redistributed if decisions are pushed down to the employees that talk directly to the customers. There is a need for pushing down information by sharing feedback with the customer, along with informing the employees about how the company is doing financially. Employees require being knowledgeable regarding the objectives and goals of business and the entire process of service delivery of which these employees are an essential part. Ultimately, they have to have a position so that they can experience customer feedback and expectations.
Evans and Dean, (2000) feel that innovation can only flourish if collaboration is taking place, and collaboration occurs best in case the team is empowered. This concept of empowerment links with individual competencies and strengths, proactive behavior and natural systems of helping to social change and social policy. To put it in other terms, empowerment would link the well being as well as the individual towards a broader political and social environment where the individual functions. By successfully implementing TQM in the hospitality industry, one can change the employee activities and attitude.
1.5 Significance of the researchAs there is a huge amount of competition existing in all sectors of business, enterprises are trying to compose their organizational structure and function in such a manner that they can beat over their competitors and stand apart in the crowd. To be able to come to such a position requires strategically planning on how the employees and the customers are to be handled, for executing effective business. One of these factors that is the choice and interests of customers can only be understood and attempted to be achieved. However, in case of the employees, they can be motivated to better service by enabling their empowerment. Especially in case of hospitality industry, where the main development of the business depends upon the employee interaction and performance, in such situations what results would be obtained and to what extent by empowering the employees would be an effective research topic. Taking the case of JM Marriott Group of Hotels, which is a thronging business in the hospitality sector one can better understand how TQM can help in the empowerment of the employees.
1.6 Research AimThe aim of this research is to identify if TQM can help empower the employees of Marriot and to see what are the impacts of empowering the employees in a business enterprise. By studying the effect of TQM on the employee empowerment in a private organization, one can understand how this individual aspect of employee empowerment will affect in the overall growth and development of the enterprise.
1.7 Research HypothesesBased on the total aims, significance and rationale behind the research, the following hypotheses can be established:
Through the applications of TQM, the empowerment of the employees of Marriot can happen.
The result of employee empowerment in Marriot would bring in positive results in better customer acquisition as well as maintaining the existing customer base.
1.8 Research QuestionsBased on the hypotheses formulated of the research, the following research questions have been identified:
What would be the impact of TQM on the employees of Marriot in UAE?
By employee empowerment in Marriott, what kind of results can be expected towards customer acquisition?
Does application of TQM in Marriott guarantee employee empowerment in the organization?
1.9 Research MethodologyThe research design would be descriptive with a mixed analysis involving both primary and secondary research. The primary research will involve empirical data analysis through a survey done of 100 customers of Marriot by collecting the database of the customers from the company records and sending them a questionnaire on their email addresses. This would be followed up by a qualitative analysis, where 5 managers of Marriot would be interviewed to find out what kinds of TQM practices are implemented in the company and if at all empowerment of employees is an active practice there. Apart from primary research, there would be secondary research conducted by reading different academic papers, journals, books, and other online materials.
1.10 Dissertation OutlineThe whole dissertation is divided into five chapters apart from the abstract, acknowledgement, references, and appendix. These chapters would individually take care of each of the aspects of the dissertation.
Introduction: This is chapter one where a brief background of the research topic, along with research rationale, significance, its aims, objectives and questions are discussed.
Literature Review: this is chapter two where the different theories, concepts and models related to the proposed subject theory is studied. This is usually the chapter where secondary analysis of the research is conducted.
Methodology: Chapter three takes care of detailing all the materials that are required along with their time frame to conduct the total research. The different methods that are used to execute the research are explained in detail in this chapter.
Data Analysis: This is chapter four where the empirical data accumulated from the survey is tabulated and analysed using graphs and pie charts. Following the quantitative data analysis, the information received from qualitative analysis is conducted.
Conclusion: Chapter five tries to summarize the findings of the total research by comparing the research objectives or hypotheses with the data found. This is followed by mentioning the limitations of the research and recommendations if any.
1.11 Concluding RemarksIn this chapter, the researcher has tried to look into the different aspects of research by analyzing the rationale behind the entire theory postulated. Along with it, the researcher has also looked into the significance this topic holds and has provided the study aims and objectives to clearly identify the area it is trying to research upon. The research questions try to prepare a researcher on the search he/she has to conduct in order to formulate a ground for the theory that has been proposed. Finally a brief method description has attempted to present the possible mode through which entire research for the dissertation would be conducted.